PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION THE INFORMATIVECOMPETENCE
OF FUTURE TRANSLATORSIN EU UNIVERSITIES ABSTRACT
Over the pastdecade in the world there has significantlyincreased the process ofglobalization,which resulted inhigh demand forthe profession of a translator.For future interpretersit is important to be well informed, to know innovations of thesector,which they have chosen as the major. Therefore, thetranslatorshould be ableto search forinformation, andcriticallyevaluate it.
The article deals with the analysis of the application of modern information technology in the future translators training at the universities of the EU countries. The analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature that investigated aspects of information technology training of future translators at the universities has been made. The most widespread of information technologies that are applied during the translators’ training process have been defined, the possibilities of their application have been grounded. Countries, cities, universities of European Union where such training is carried out have been pointed out.
Alsoit should be mentioned that thecharacteristic featureof interpreters' higher education in Europeis that thetraining programtendto a specializationprofile. Their maintypesare:fullprogramof higher educationand independentgraduate programs ofspecializednature. The skills development of using computertechnology makes an importantcontribution towardsimprovingthe quality of education during theprofessional activity. The change and correction ofprogramsin accordance with thedevelopment of information technologies,informatization process, professional translators' interests are carried out in education systems.
In the process of professional training there are used the methodsthatare aimedat the intensification of theprocessesof self-educationandself-development. An important provisionof the Bolognaprocessis thefocusof highereducation establishments oneducational results: knowledge and skills of thegraduatesshould be applied andpracticallyused.
Key words:training of future translators, educational computer technology, information and communication technologies, computer science competence.
Professional training of future translators at the universities around the world has two main types of educational programs: complete higher education programs usually lasting 5 years with consecutive obtaining a degree of bachelor and degree master; graduate programs that operate independently of undergraduate programs and provide 2 years (seldom 1 year) of study for students who have already obtained a bachelor's degree in a relevant discipline.
The aim of the study is the analysis of modern information technology application in the informational competence formation of future translators at the universities of European Union.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODS
An important meaning for research of raised question have scientific investigations in contrastive professional pedagogics of Ukrainian scientists such as N. Avsheniuk, N. Bidyuk, T. Desiatov, O. Serheieva.
Some aspects of future translators professional training become the object of scientific investigation of the following researchers. Y. Kolos (informational and technological competence), A. Kozak (translation culture), S. Panov (technical translators training), O. Rohulska and A. Yankovets (the formation of professional competence of translator by means of information and communication technologies). The results of scientific researches of such british investigators as D. Bachmann-Medick), R. Bell, W. Benjamin, J. Boase-Beier, W. Wilss play an important role in training of translators.
To achieve the established goal we have used some crucial research methods: comparative-analytical method, thanks to which the overview of the native and foreign literature has been made; general scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis, generalization, systematization of the collected data; theoretical generalization and prognosis which resulted in the conclusion and the perspectives of further scientific researches.
Theoretical framework of the research consists of the scientific works of the topic in question by native scientists as well as of laws, statements, normative acts which serve to regulate the juridical, social, economic relations in translators training, in particular.
The first plan of training predominates in many European countries (e.g. Germany, Austria, Spain), undergraduate educational programs lasting 4 years dominate in Turkey. Independent graduate training programs for translators are widespread in other countries (e.g. France, USA, UK). After receiving a bachelor's or master's degree, graduating students with sufficient level of a foreign language proficiency may continue their studies for a master's degree in translation, which will significantly expand the sphere of their professional activities.
The characteristic feature of the independent master programs is their subject oriented specialization. They are aimed at meeting a requirements of the translation services market and provide the availability of specialized disciplines that enable to obtain the necessary knowledge in future professional activities. Sometimes for enrolment to these programs you must first to get a college degree in the sphere of specialization, at least the bachelor’s degree. In Europe, the Bologna process involves the delimitation of undergraduate and graduate programs of training translators (Мартинюк, 2010, 158).
The researcher of higher school reforms in Germany, N. Abashkina pays attention to the recommendations of Resolution of 1984 about possible target information technology training: cognitive (basic information on electronics, processing of information by electronic computers, knowledge of basic economic laws); emotional (satisfaction of solving complex technical problems, removal of the fear of new information technologies); pragmatic (mastery of the display keyboard, ability to operate with text editing systems and telecommunication devices); social (the formation of social behavior skills at the workplace).
From the point of Abashkina’s view the modernization of educational process in Germany made a technocratic aspect a priority. But “German teachers consider that introduction to the training of new information technology should not completely displace traditional skills” (Кoвaль, 2008, 91).
In Germany, the training of translators is carried out by the programs of general and sectoral orientation on the basis of many higher education institutions. Highly qualified interpreters and translators are trained at eight universities in Germany: universities of Berlin, Bonn, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Saarbrucken, and others. Each of these universities gives the opportunity to choose a speciality with a consistent degree (educational levels) of Bachelor and Master, and inconsistent degree, i.d the undergraduate and graduate programs are independent of each other. Master’s degree programs provide the following degrees: Master of Natural Sciences, Master of Science, Master of Engineering Sciences and Master of Jurisprudence (Лєонова, 2012).
The specialities names coincide only in the branch of interpretation – all 5 specialities are called “Conference translation” (Konferenzdolmetschen) and are offered only as a graduate specialities. The specialities in branch of translation do not have this unity, they are called in different ways at every university: “Intercultural / or multilingual communication”, “Technical Translation / or technical communication”, “Translation Study / or translatology”.
Disciplines introducing students the basis of language data computer processing, editioning and machine translation are obligatory in translators’ curriculum. These disciplines are introduced from the very beginning of training. Students of German universities have the opportunity to attend the terminology theory and practice courses, which provide the students with knowledge about terms origin and classification, and train students’ terminology search knowledge using all means: the vocabulary and database.
It is well known fact that the university is the basis of the higher education system in UK. Every university follows the standard enrolment of students. In United Kingdom, like in other Western European countries, the most common are the such skill levels as “Bachelor”, “Master”, “Doctor of Philosophy”.
The important element of education process in Britain is to give students the possibility of creating an individual package of courses which are necessary for getting some profession, in particular, profession of translator.
Professional training of interpreters and translators in Great Britain is realized by the independent graduate programs. It is possible to get the professional translation education in five Universities of England (Westminster, Bath, Salford, Bradford, Heriot-Watt). The condition for entrance the magistracy is high language proficiency and bachelor’s degree in foreign language (philology). Studying in magistracy lasts one year and contains three trimesters. During the first and second trimester it is possible to have 5–6 modules and respectively the specialization of translation and interpretation is occurred. Beginning from the last month of the first trimester students participate in trainings as conference translators once for two weeks. During the Easter holidays trainees do their obligatory practical training in one of the international organizations (UNO, UNESCO) (Кoвaль, 2008, 91).
During the last trimester students write master’s thesis in theory and practice of translation or theory and practice research paper, which is the translation of complex text with comments. The well-known professional translators are often invited to the Universities of Great Britain to conduct the master classes (Бідюк, 2011, 156).
The practical component of future translators’ training programs in the Universities of Great Britain has such element as doing active and passive practical training at the enterprises. The last is the final stage of forming the specialist. In course of this stage consolidation of theoretical knowledge is occurred and practical skills of professional activities are formed.
The British scientist, G. Richards, the professor of linguistics in translation in the Bath University, says that practical training is the natural method for determination the students motivational, professional and life priorities. When the students get into the new environment close to the real they investigate and study it. Thus the skills and experiences of professional activities are subconsciously formed. Constant changes at work places play only the positive motivational role (Сєргєєва, 2011, 151–167).
In recent years the Open University of Great Britain started using teleconferences, the Internet and other technical means in educational process. For deeper learning students of translation department use computer educational programs. The obligatory element is their participation in computer conferences with using the Internet.
Almost all Open Universities use multimedia approach to learning, which provides the use of paper media materials, audio and video materials, TV-broadcasting and computers. Open University of UK uses various TV and radio programs as an addition to paper media learning materials, that is the result of cooperation with BBC (Кoвaль, 2008, 199).
Let’s give a brief characteristic to modern and traditional methods and technologies, which form united didactic complex, used at all the universities of UK to train interpreters and translators. Computer technology, designed to optimize learning process, is the main element of teaching IT. The benefits of such technologies in the training of future translators are as follows: modern informative and detailed scientific approach, the possibility of efficient changes in the planning and organization of learning process, the ability to choose the means and forms of training, the ability of modeling of different professional situations, organization of interaction with students, on-line consultations and assessment, implementation of personal approach, the effective exchange of experience and realization of the idea of continuous educational process, reduction of training time.
In British universities of Bristol, Birmingham, Aston and Surrey information technologies (IT), which develop interpreters’ communicative skills are widespread.
The most applicable interactive information and communication technologies for translators’ training are WiZiO, PhP My SQL, Wiki, SharePoint, ASP.Net, XML, HTML, XSLT, Microsoft ADO.NET, NET Framework, Microsoft Visual Basicor, ECMA Script and others. Scientific and methodological support of modern IT includes different additional materials (recommendations concerning the organization of educational process, paper media materials, statistics lectures, additional informational materials for disciplines) and interactive learning materials (dynamic lectures such as blogs, podcast lectures and others) (Сєргєєва, 2011, 157).
Among the multimedia means that are used during the professional training of future translators are multimedia presentation, slide show, online report, multimedia report, e-zine, flash- and shockwave games (online and offline games), educational multimedia systems, multimedia Internet – resources (Лєонова, 2012).
The introduction of e-means of virtual communication in the process of the future translators’ training at the Universities of London, Bath and others improved the quality of translators’ training.
Professional training of interpreters in Austria is carried out at the three universities (Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck). The curricula of the Vienna University (Universität Wien) and the Graz University (Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz) pay much attention to information technologies. The discipline “Fundamentals of Information Technology” introduces students the opportunities of the application of information technology in translation, methods of information searching in Internet. Students receive operating skills with Microsoft Office software package and some machine translation systems.
The University of Innsbruck translators’ training program includes obligatory module discipline “Management Terminology”. The main goal of this discipline is to teach the proper application of modern information technology, mastering the methods of searching, storing and organization of information.
Uuniversity teaching of translation has played an important role in Switzerland. Only Geneva Higher School of Translation is a part of the University and is a member CIUTI.
The modern information technologies play an important role in specialist training, especially in future translators’ training. They help to upgrade the educational process, make it closer to the needs of society and the market, introduce the latest inventions of science and technology, form the leading professional skills, and form a competent specialist.
Educational activities of interpreters and translators combined with IT require some knowledge in computer science, specialist disciplines, especially in foreign languages. The synthesis of the traditional and modern information technologies is activity-based, where the educational activities help to form a general idea of professional activity of the interpreter. Application of an interdisciplinary approach makes it possible to integrate knowledge of linguistics and computer science, linguistics and psychology (Сєргєєва, 2011).
Characteristic feature of translation higher education in Europe is that the translators’ training programs have a tendency to a subject-oriented specialization . Their main types of programs are: program of full higher education and independent graduate programs. An important contribution to the improvement of the quality of education makes the development of computer technology skills application in the professional activities.
One of the most important elements of the Bologna process is the focus of higher education institutions on the final result: the knowledge and skills of graduates should be applied and practically used in favor of the whole Europe.
Бідюк,Н.,Сергєєва,О. (2011).Використання педагогічних технологій у підготовці майбутніх перекладачів в університетах Великої Британії [The use of educational technology in the training of future translators in UK universities]. Наук. записки Нац. пед. ун-ту ім. М. Драгоманова: зб. наук. ст. [ScinetificnotesofM. DrahomanovNationalPedagogicalUniversity]. Київ: НПУ ім. М. Драгоманова,Issue 56,p. 34–40 (in Ukrainian).
Коваль, Т. I. (2008). Тeopeтичнi тa мeтoдичнi ocнoви пpoфeciйнoї пiдгoтoвки з iнфopмaцiйниx тexнoлoгiй мaйбутнix мeнeджepiв-eкoнoмicтiв [Theoretical and methodological bases of the professional informational technologies training of the future managers-econmists]. Doctoral thesis. Кyiv (in Ukrainian).
Левицька, Н. В. (2012). Реформування професійної підготовки перекладачів в Німеччині на основі Болонського процесу [Reforming translators’ professional training in Germany on the basis of Bologna process]. In: I. М. Шopoбуpa (Ed.), Пeдaгoгiчний диcкуpc:зб. нaук. пp. [Pedagogical discourse: collection of scientific works]. Xмeльницький, Issue 11, p. 172–175 (in Ukrainian).
Лєонова, А. С. (2012). Специфика информационной подготовки переводчика: требования рынка (Австрия) [Specificity of interpreters’ information training: market requirements (Austria)]. Историческая и социально-образовательная мысль. Педагогика и методика преподавания. [Historical, social and educational thought. Pedagogy and teaching methods], № 3 (13). Retrieves on 12.05.2014 from: http://cyberleninka.ru/ article/n/spetsifika-informatsionnoy (in Russian).
Мартинюк, О. В. (2010). Професійна підготовка перекладачів у контексті глобалізаційних та інтеграційних процесів [Training translators in the context of globalization and integration processes]. In: I. М. Шopoбуpa (Ed.), Пeдaгoгiчний диcкуpc: зб. нaук. пp. [Pedagogical discourse: collection of scientific works]. Xмeльницький: ХГПА, Issue 7, p. 157–161 (in Ukrainian).
Сергєєва, О. В. (2011). Особливості професійної діяльності перекладачів у Великій Британії [Peculiarities of the professional activity of UK translators]. Вісн. Черкас. ун-ту. Сер. «Педагогічні науки»[Herlad of Cherkasy State University. “Pedagogical Sciences” series], Issue. 196, part ІІ, p. 154–158 (in Ukrainian).
PhD in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, VITA KORNIIENKO
SHSE “Kryvyi Rih National University”
Address: 57 microdistrict Sonyachnyi, apt. 56,
Kryvyi Rih, 50027, Ukraine
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MODELS OF BACHELORS OF ARTS’ PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN APPLIED LINGUISTICS
AT THE UNIVERSITIES OF UKRAINE AND THE USA ABSTRACT
The analysis of scientists’ researches from different countries dealing with different aspects of training in the educational systems of developed countries was carried out. The models of Bachelors of Arts in Applied Linguistics professional training in Ukraine were considered. It was analyzed a professional training of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics in the USA and the comparative analysis of models of professional training of Bachelors of Arts in Applied Linguistics at the universities of Ukraine and the USA was carried out. Different and similar approaches of using new learning technologies, the structure and content of educational programs, assessment systems and scientific methods of teaching, practical training Bachelors of Arts in Applied Linguistics, accreditation and certification of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics qualifications were defined. The general positive characteristics of professional training of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics in the United States and Ukraine were determined.
Key words:professional training, Bachelor of Arts, Applied Linguistics, new learningtechnologies, educational program, assessment, accreditation, certification, teaching methods. INTRODUCTION
Professional training of Bachelors of Arts in Applied Linguistics in Ukraine now becomes of great importance. After professional training competitive specialists is essential to labor-market just because of society’s needs for specialists with technical and language training. In our point of view, this raises the problem of the professional training quality of such specialists in our country. To make a qualitative analysis of a Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics’ training quality in Ukraine we turned to years of experience training professionals such leading countries, namely the United States of America.
THE AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is a comparative analysis of models of professional training of Bachelors of Arts in Applied Linguistics at the Universities of Ukraine and the United States, which we have set the following objectives: to analyze the professional training of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics in Ukraine; to make an analysis of the professional training of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics in the United States; to carry out a comparative analysis of professional training models of Bachelor of Arts in applied linguistics at the universities of Ukraine and the United States; to highlight common positive training characteristics of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics in the U.S. and Ukraine.
To make a qualitative analysis of professional training models of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics in Ukraine we turned to years of experience training professionals such leading countries, namely the United States.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODS
In recent decades, Ukrainian scientists actively carried out a comparative-pedagogical study of specialists’ professional training in the educational systems of developed countries: the USA, Germany, Canada, France, Great Britain, China, Australia, Scandinavia, Poland (N. Avshenyuk, N. Bidyuk, V. Kudin, M. Leschenko, A. Matvienko, N. Mukan, O. Ohiienko, I. Rusnak, A. Sbruyeva and others). Some aspects of professional training in foreign language teaching experience in the USA have been the subject of research I. Pasynkova (professional training of Bachelors of Arts in foreign languages), A. Martyniuk (Masters training in technical translation), O. Zinovatna (philologist training of Master’s level), L. Chernykh (competency based approach to professional training of teachers) and others. The formation content of training, professional competence forms of learning activities, the use of innovative educational technologies in training were analyzed in scientific workshops of J. Dychkivska, R. Gurevich, T. Smith, L. Naval, L. Romanyshyna, R. Sharan and others. Retrospective analysis of applied linguistics in the works by P. Angelis, L. Bloomfield, A. Davies, R. Kaplan and others were carried out. Of great interest were the results of American scientists’ researches such as W. Grabe, T. McNamara, D. Larsen- Freeman, M. Celce-Murcia, A. Howatt and others.
The research methods we used are: theoretical analysis, synthesis, the method of studying educational and historical documents.
A comparative analysis of professional training models of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics at the Universities of Ukraine and the United States has shown us that these models have similar and different aspects of the educational process in higher educational institutions of Ukraine and the United States; there are different and similar approaches of new innovative learning technologies using, the structure and content of educational programs, system evaluation, scientific methods of teaching, in a Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics practical training, accreditation and certification of qualifications Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics (The law of Ukraine “On Education”, 1996, 178–179].
In Ukraine, as in the United States, education is available in both the public and private higher education institutions. Most private schools give graduation diplomas of state pattern. The U.S. has mostly state education and controlled and funded at three levels: federal government, state governments and local authorities (Бідюк, 2010, 443–447). Any talented students can go to study free at private university. In every state, there is a University of so-called “state” university. In addition, there is a rank of Universities, which determines the subsequent employment of graduates.
Note, that in the U.S. there are colleges where you can get a degree within 2 years, which is equal to the secondary level of education, as well as those where you can get a bachelor’s degree for 4 years (Топчий, 2011, 203–205).
After graduation in Ukraine you can get a bachelor’s degree (after 4 years) and Master (after 6 years of education).
For admission to the Ukrainian University, you must take IEE (independent external evaluation) of the subjects required for admission to universities in the chosen future profession, and pass the competition certificates. This allows applicants to apply for admission to a maximum of five universities. In the U.S., the selection and admission of applicants may be open, competitive and selective, depending on the prestige of the university. There are general requirements for admission to universities in the U.S. and in Ukraine: the presence of a graduation document of secondary education, the list of subjects studied and the estimates, the total number of credits for specific tests, recommendations, characteristics of teachers and school administration, an interview for admission. Taking into account also the characteristics of the church, description of the work in public organizations, proof of participation in school competitions, festivals, scientific and technical groups, sporting clubs, amateur performances, etc. (Топчий, 2011, 203–205). These additional documents are important because they can be seen the carefulness, inclination, personal qualities applicant.
The academic year in American high schools usually lasts 9 months – from the end of January or September to May or June and consists of 15–16 weeks. In some universities the academic year consists of 10–11-week semesters 3 times a year (Топчий, 2011, 203–205).
It is worth noting that in the U.S. and in some Ukrainian university teacher chooses the form of the exam at the end of the semester; some students can get the “home free” without the exam. But in contrast to Ukrainian, U.S. students can make up tests and exams several times, and they are not expulsion.
After receiving a bachelor’s degree in Ukraine you can get a master’s degree, and post-graduate courses studies or as external PhD student (with successful results with minimal Ph.D.) – PhD. PhD is available on doctoral studies, but doctoral studies don’t a requirement. In the U.S., a PhD and postgraduate are missing. For the Doctor degree, student must enter into the presence of a master’s doctorate diploma. Some universities have a bachelor’s degree is sufficient (Топчий, 2011, 203–205).
Note that the comparison of professional training models of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics in Ukraine and the United States should start from the general organization of higher education in two countries. Thus, the system of higher education in the U.S. is not subject to a single governance and non-state ownership. Local governments and state controlled licensing schools and programs in force in their territory, and the process of accreditation and quality assessment dealing with non-governmental agencies. This applies to both public and private universities. In contrast to the American system of higher education in Ukraine universities are subject to state educational agencies such as the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, legal regulations such as the Ministry of Education of Ukraine “On Approval of the Regulation on the organization of the educational process in higher education” (Regulations of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine “On Approval of the Regulation on the organization of the educational process in higher education”, 1993), the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine № 65 dated 20 January 1998 “On approval of the educational and skill levels (stepwise formation)” (Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine № 65, 1998), the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 13.12.2006 № 1719 “On the list of areas for which the specialists are trained in higher education for the qualification of Bachelor” (Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On the list of areas for which the specialists are trained in higher education for the qualification of Bachelor”, 2006), the law of Ukraine “On Education” (The law of Ukraine “On Education”, 1996) and others. Unfortunately, we should noted that the legal framework of Ukraine in the field of Bachelor of Arts degree in Applied Linguistics in need of improvement and reform.
An analysis of the universities that train bachelors in applied linguistics, teaching students in this field are much cheaper in Ukraine than in America, even under the standard of living. However, unlike in Ukraine, in the USA there is a very attractive system of benefits for students (e. g. social). Also, a student can get a loan as financial institutions or directly to the university. There are also sponsor organizations or private/public enterprises that are fully paid for student learning, but on condition that future specialist will work at the sponsored company. Due to the high cost of education, the University may provide some benefits exclusive to students, and to build high-tech equipment and modern classrooms and learning process. In Ukraine, the funding of higher education institutions is mainly by public funds (except private), and paid learning. Unfortunately, the economic crisis in the country has led to a lack of funds and under-funding of the educational sector, so far fewer places to train students for public funds stopped developing and improving the learning process through high-tech learning tools, hardware upgrades done enough classrooms with modern equipment for the use of technology for learning foreign languages.
Note that in the U.S. Bachelor of Arts degree in Applied Linguistics going full-time and distance learning in Ukraine – full-time and part-time. If Ukraine ratio of these forms of training – 50 % to 50 % in the United States dominates most full-time education and few institutions offer training Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics remotely. Significant differences in the organization of Bachelor of Arts in Ukraine and the United States concerning the practical training, because in Ukraine to receive educational qualification of “Bachelor” with a specialty “Applied Linguistics” exists only teaching practice. In the United States for practical training of students is much more closely related, as university leaders released quite a number of hours to practice, and besides teaching practice the student is able to undergo practical training, as a future specialist in applied linguistics has a wide range of jobs to apply acquired during training skills. Ukrainian and American students-bachelors have an Internship in the final year of study.
Analysis of American and Ukrainian curricula (Корнієнко, 2012, 57–79, 147–168) showed that there was a significant difference in the content of training Ukrainian and U.S. professionals in applied linguistics. Thus, the curriculum for Bachelor of Arts in the United States traced the harmonious combination of a wide range of disciplines humanities and applied sciences disciplines under the professional and practical training. Note that even part of linguistics studied so deeply that covers a large number of subjects such as syntax, phonology, morphology, cognitive linguistics, historical linguistics, language and culture, mastering a second language, linguistics, philosophy of language, comparative syntax, psycholinguistics, Romance Languages and their history, semantics, bilingualism and many others. Unfortunately in the curriculum of universities in Ukraine, which train Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics, in the cycle of professional and practical subjects studied training only speaking practice, the theory and practice of translation, methods of teaching science and methods of teaching foreign languages. That is, despite the employability of bachelors Ukrainian universities in positions related to IT technologies, yet the greatest emphasis on teaching practice, for example, according to the Volyn National University of Lesya Ukrainka a specialist with a Bachelor of Applied Linguistics may hold such positions: Teacher of English in higher and secondary education establishments of all kinds (including in-depth study of a foreign language) certification levels and degrees; Engineer scholar, linguist, researcher in the research institutes and laboratories; Professional translation; teacher of German in secondary schools of all types and degrees (including in-depth study of a foreign language) as well as in higher educational institutions of I–IV accreditation levels; teacher of French in higher and secondary education establishments of all kinds (including in-depth study of a foreign language) certification levels and degrees; Software Engineer; system administrator; scholar engineer; Engineer in schools, banks, medical centers, the Center for Applied and experimental linguistics, research institutes, Bureau of Standards, Bureau of applied social research, publishing and editorial offices; teacher of foreign languages (English, German), computer science; translator. It is because the list of subjects is quite limited and focused on the knowledge of two languages and methods of teaching; the student does not fully understand what he has done in his career. This demonstrates the need for drawing up training standards applied linguist, and improving curricula and programs.
Analyzing the educational opportunities of higher education institutions for the Bachelor of Applied Linguistics, we have found that the level of educational qualification “Bachelor” with specialty “Applied Linguistics” in 2012 can be obtained at the following universities in Ukraine: Volyn National University of Lesya Ukrainka, Dnipropetrovsk University of Alfred Nobel, Donetsk National University, Zakarpatskyi State University, Kirovograd State Pedagogical University named after Volodymyr Vinnychenko, Kyiv National Linguistic University, Training and Research Institute of Ukrainian Studies and Social Communication, National Aerospace Universitynamed after N. Ye. Zhukovsky, National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, National University “Lviv Polytechnic”, Institute of Computer Science and Information Technology, Odessa National University named after I. I. Mechnikov, East Ukrainian National University named after Volodymyr Dahl, Ukrainian Institute of Linguistics and Management, Kharkiv National University V. N. Karazin, Cherkasy State Technological University. The list of institutions each year may vary as one university can be accredited to the teaching profession, and the other – to lose.
Analysis of the curriculum for Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics has shown that both the U.S. and in Ukraine curricula consist of a block of compulsory (statutory) subjects and disciplines sample block. But the content of these blocks differs significantly. For example, in Ukraine block of compulsory subjects include: a series of humanitarian and socio-economic sciences subjects, block of general sciences training subjects and block of courses for professional purposes. The structure of the university curriculum in the USA depends directly on the institution and its internal structure. In summary it can be stated that the block contains core courses: general courses and courses for professional purposes. Regarding block of elective subjects, we note that the Ukrainian elective curriculum subjects consist of self-selection of subjects and university courses of free choice of students. In American High School curriculum only noticed that the student must choose elective courses. Some curriculum contains the list of items but in the other – no. In this case, the student has to apply to the faculty advisor. The student can choose any course from the list of courses to choose from to get the appropriate number of credits that meet the requirements for taking Bachelor degree. Note that there are also differences in the number of hours that are caused by legislative educational base of both countries. For example, in Ukraine the number of credits is 60 credit hours or 2160 hours. In the U.S., the number is 120 credit hours or respectively 4320 hours.
We want to mark general positive characteristics of Bachelor of Arts degree in Applied Linguistics in the United States:
1. Democratic approach to student learning, the teacher does not position itself as a leader. The teacher in the learning process rather adviser, senior fellow, that allows students to feel more free, and ready to accept new information.
2. Teaching discipline involving a large number of additional materials such as books, manuals, application materials, printing ; use of different teaching methods depending on the material being studied, as well as various non-traditional forms of learning.
3. Widespread use of the information, and interactive computer technology. These technologies are used as teaching aids, as well as major combined with traditional learning tools.
4. Abundance of courses for professional purposes, which enables students to obtain a complete and wide professional knowledge and skills.
5. Diversification of practical training, which takes quite a long time. The student has the opportunity to work directly on the future job that gives a complete understanding of their profession. Services employment at universities to help future professionals in applied linguistics decide on future employment.
6. High student mobility that enables the exchange of experiences both within the country and abroad for the Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics.
Positive characteristics of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics in Ukraine:
1. Curriculum distribution of Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics at different blocks of disciplines that enables students to be fully aware not only within the professional area.
2. Quite affordable tuition fees, which opens the possibility for applicants to get a date and in accordance with the new Ukraine profession that encompasses a wide range of positions for employment.
3. Opportunity to study full-time and part-time training that enhances the applicants to obtain the desired specialty in applied linguistics.
Thus, we believe that a combination of American and Ukrainian Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics experience will improve the quality of teaching native students. Improving educational programs Bachelor of Applied Linguistics in Ukraine, creation of standards Bachelor of Applied Linguistics, associations, production practices, enabling student mobility are all of which significantly improve the training of Bachelors of Applied Linguistics in Ukraine and raise the quality of education past a higher level.
Бідюк, Н. М. (2010). Використання технології активного навчання у підготовці майбутніх лінгвістів у США [The Use of Active Learning Technology in the Training of Future Masters in the USA]. Наук. записки Вінницького державного педагогічного університету імені Михайла Коцюбинського, cер. “Педагогіка і психологія”[Scientific Notes of Mykhailo Kotsyubynsky Vinnitsa State University, “Pedagogy and Psychology” series]. Issue.33. – p. 443–447 (in Ukrainian).
ЗаконУкраїнивід 23.03.96, № 199/96 ВР(100/96 вр)«Проосвіту» [The law of Ukraine “On Education”]. Retrieved 05.06.2014 from: http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/cgi-bin/laws /main.cgi?nreg=10060-12 (in Ukrainian).
Корнієнко, В. (2012). ПрофесійнапідготовкабакалаврівгуманітарнихнаукзприкладноїлінгвістикивуніверситетахСША [Professional training of Bachelors of Arts in Applied Linguistics at the USA universities]. Doctoral thesis. Національна академія прикордонної служби України ім. Б. Хмельницького, Хмельницький (in Ukrainian).
НаказМіністерстваосвітиУкраїни № 161 від 02.06.93 «ПрозатвердженняПоложенняпроорганізаціюнавчальногопроцесуувищихнавчальнихзакладах» [Regulations of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine “On Approval of the Regulation on the organization of the educational process in higher education”] Retrieved 05.06.2014 from: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/z0173-93 (in Ukrainian).
ПостановаКМУ № 1719 від 13.12.2006 «Проперелікнапрямів, заякимиздійснюєтьсяпідготовкафахівцівувищихнавчальнихзакладахзаосвітньо-кваліфікаційнимрівнембакалавра» [Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On the list of areas for which the specialists are trained in higher education for the qualification of Bachelor”]. Retrieved 05.06.2014 from: http://zakon1.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1719-2006-п (in Ukrainian).
ПостановаКМУ № 65 від 20.01.1998 р. «ПрозатвердженняПоложенняпроосвітньо-кваліфікаційнірівні(ступеневуосвіту)» (із змінами, внесеними згідно з Постановами КМ № 677 від 23.04.99 № 1482 від 13.08.99) [Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine № 65 dated January 20, 1998 “On approval of the educational and skill level (level higher education)” (as amended in accordance with the number 677 KM from 23.04.99 № 1482 of 13.08.99]. Retrieved 05.06.2014 from: http://zakon.nau.ua/doc/ ?uid=1059.58.0 (in Ukrainian).
Топчий, Н. Н. (2011). Сравнительная характеристика систем образования Украины и США [Comparative characteristics of the education systems of Ukraine and the United States]. In: Проблемы и перспективы развития образования : материалы междунар. заоч. науч. конф. (г. Пермь, апрель 2011 г.). Пермь: Меркурий, Volume 2, P. 203–205 (In Russian).
English instructor at the Chair of the English, YEVHENIYA PROTSKO
Uman State Pedagogical University
Address: 51/55 Lenina St., Uman, Cherkassy Region
REQUIREMENTS TO THE PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE
OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN BELGIUM ABSTRACT
The concept of a teacher competence in the works of national and foreign scholars has been investigated in the article. The author describes the standards for English teachers in Belgium that is considered to be an inalienable element of the European education. The qualified training of the teachers is denoted as pedagogical, didactic and methodical knowledgemastering and obtaining research and practical skills. In Belgium vocational education in general and teacher training in particular are described as training of an educational specialist with vocational, organizational, communicative skills and high level of the competence.
Key words: the competence of the foreign language teacher, European standards for teachers, communicative competence, occupational/vocational competence, pedagogical/teacher training education, teacher, educational specialist. INTRODUCTION
Today when we are leaving in the time of globalization and intellectual development of the society, of the educational revision it is necessary to pay attention to the importance of vocational experience, to the creation of the teaching competence. Continuity of vocational education is known to be a basis for finding the teacher of new generation. Teacher training means obtaining pedagogical and didactic knowledge, research and practical experience (Закаулова, 2012). The competence includes occupational qualification, even personal and vocational traits of a teacher, non-typical creative thinking, an ability to take appropriate decisions, to use the knowledge according to a working situation, aspiration for self-perfection.
Modern changes in political, economic, socio-cultural development of the society made a great influence on a foreign language education in the countries of the European Council. Pupils and students are supposed not just to learn the linguistic aspect of the foreign language but to use it in practice and to some extend create ‘a map of the world’ of the native speaker in their minds. The forming of sociocultural competence is a person’s world view developing and preparing to learn history of the mankind, of the country, of the nationality.
THE AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of the article is the English teacher competence in Europe in general and in Belgium in particular.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODS
There are many national and foreign scholars who have been researching the problem of the teacher competence. The works of S. Nikolaeva, O. Petraschuk, N. Braznuk, V. Redko in the sphere of vocational and methodical work of the foreign language teacher helps to denote the competence.
Y. Zakaulova regards competence as the correspondence of the given working task to the ability of a teacher to do it in the working situation (Закаулова, 2012). O. Nikolaev sees it as a degree of teacher’s qualification which helps him to solve the given tasks successfully (Ніколаєв, 2012). N. Avdeeva denotes the competence as a marker that characterizes the preparedness of a person to live in a society (Авдеева, 2003).
Foreign searchers devote their works to the problem as well. M. Canale and M. Swain in “A Theoretical Framework for Communicative Competence” (1981) paid attention to the analysis of the theoretical base for creating communicative competence in future foreign language teachers. Davies Allan in “Communicative Competence as a Language Use” (1989) shared the idea of forming foreign communicative skills and experience.
The research methods we used are: theoretical analysis, synthesis, the method of studying educational and historical documents.
In the countries of the European Union and in Belgium as well vocational education and teacher training means bringing up a personality who obtains the potential of vocational creativity, organizing and communicative skills necessary for effective educational activity. A qualified teacher should possess substantial knowledge of the appropriate specialty and high level of the competence (Закаулова, 2012).
In order to denote the English teacher competence in Belgium it is important to check the standards for teachers in general and for foreign language teachers in particular.
Ukrainian scholar L. Puhovska having analyzed teacher training in Europe, distinguished four aspects of pedagogical education:
academic and traditional aspect (the teacher has the role of knowledge ‘transferor’, the main purpose of the teacher training is getting the mastery in the field of the professional course);
technological (the same role of the teacher but the aim of the training is obtaining the knowledge and skills of the vocational mastery);
individual paradigm (firmly connected with the humanistic approach in education which denotes a person with the values, freedom and activity as the main part of the pedagogical process);
research approach (one should form creative and critical mode of thinking, the experience of research activity, the retrieval of a personal mastery in a teacher).
She also describes the personal approach in teacher training which expands the sphere of creative knowledge mastering. The learning pays attention to the personality and is being completely changed by means of the motive functions in content appropriation (Puhovska).
Another scholar G. Kiltcherman explains personal theory of education as the knowledge complex personally made by a teacher which contains a curriculum, future tasks, teacher self-conception, conception about school, family etc. (Середа, 2003).
In 1970-90s in European pedagogy there appeared a so called ‘personolizated’ teacher training approach. It had been developed with the help of scholars and experts of pedagogical education all over the world. It denotes teacher training to be based on the necessity of the vocational self-consciousness and the development of vocational interests of future teachers. But in Belgium this paradigm developed and spread more. The Belgian scholars adopted the main statements of the ‘personolizated’ teacher training approach to the modern conditions. They made their own ‘personolizated’ approach of the teacher training:
The opportunity for a student to show his professional interests.
Student responsibility for their own studying.
The support directed to the development of the professional interests.
Early involving in the teaching reality.
Teaching activity during the first year of studying.
The situation of success during the first teaching experience.
Differentiation of standards in preparing for lessons.
Specific orientation in theoretical teacher training.
Methods used in theoretical training.
Cyclic character of the training (Пуховська).
Having analyzed the educational documents and scientific works we found that some scholars and associations of teachers (the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, the American Association of Teachers of French, the National Council of the English Language Teachers etc.) had been trying to denote and develop standards for foreign language education. They found the five goals of foreign language education (so-called “five C’s”) and the standards to follow them (see table 1).
The ‘Five C’s’ and the Standards to Follow Them
students are engaged in conversations, provide and obtain information, express their opinions;
understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics;
present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience
of listeners or readers on a variety of topics
students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the culture
students reinforce their knowledge of other disciplines through
acquire the information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints
that are only available through the foreign language and its cultures
students demonstrate understanding of the language through comparisons of the language studied and their own;
demonstrate understanding of the culture concept through comparisons of the culture studied and their own
students use the language both within and beyond the school setting;
show the evidence of becoming lifelong learners by using
the language for personal enjoyment and enrichment
Belgium having carried the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages denotes personal behavior, motives, values and ideals as the main object of personal and methodical development of the future foreign language teacher.
The document defines the norms for the foreign language teacher to follow.
distortions (poor telephone lines, radio reception, public address systems);
weather conditions (wind, extreme cold, etc.).
For writing: poor reproduction of print; difficult handwriting; poor lighting, etc.
The foreign language teachers (including the English teachers as well) should also remember the number and familiarity of interlocutors, relative status of participants (power and solidarity, etc.), presence or absence of audience and social relationships between participants. It is necessary to remember preparation time for speeches, reports, etc., limitations on time allowed (e.g. by rules, expense, competing events and commitments, etc.) for turns and interactions (Language Policy Unit).
The teacher is supposed to have the below mentioned communicative competence. Teacher training and the English teacher competence should be directed to obtain the cognitive, linguistic, phonetic, semantic and manual skills which will help them to prepare children for linguistic situation:
plan and organize a message (cognitive and linguistic skills);
perceive the utterance (auditory phonetic skills);
formulate a linguistic utterance (linguistic skills);
articulate the utterance (phonetic skills).
hand-write or type the text (manual skills) or otherwise transfer the text to writing.
understand the message (semantic skills);
interpret the message (cognitive skills).
Sociolinguistic competence also includes the ability to recognize the linguistic markers of, for example: social class, regional provenance, national origin, ethnicity and occupational group.
Pragmatic competences are concerned with the teacher’s knowledge of the principles according to which messages are:
a) organized, structured and arranged (‘discourse competence’);
b) used to perform communicative functions (‘functional competence’);
c) sequenced according to interactional and transactional schemata (‘design competence’) (Language Policy Unit).
The concept of ‘teacher’, ‘lecturer’, and ‘instructor’ is of great importance in Belgium and needs deep investigation since competent lecturers and instructors give future teachers sound knowledge and practical skills in the specialty. The reforms which have been recently carried out in the educational sphere are giving teachers an opportunity to spend more time in a working environment and to put their knowledge into practice, to use it working with children.
One must pay attention to the fact that the main task of the teachers in Belgium doesn’t include the paper work, the work with the curricula and the lesson plans but the work with a class directly. In the sphere of education the humanization and personalization of the education are very important. They distinguish personally oriented approach in English teacher training that means to teach the future educators how to be responsible, to respect the national and multicultural appliance, to be ready for self-denial, for reflexive studying, long vocational development (Закаулова, 2012).
A foreign scholar Canagarajah says that most of the world’s English teachers are not native speakers of English, and it is not necessary to have a nativelike command of a language in order to teach it well. Some of the best language classes he observed had been taught by teachers for whom English was a foreign or second language. Conversely some of the worst classes he knew had been taught by native speakers. So the issue is, how much of a language does one need to know to be able to teach it effectively, and how does proficiency in a language interact with other aspects of teaching (Richards, 2011).
To answer the first question we need to start by considering the language-specific competencies that a language teacher needs in order to teach effectively. These include the ability to do the following kinds of things:
to comprehend texts accurately;
to provide good language models;
to maintain use of the target language in the classroom;
to maintain fluent use of the target;
to give explanations and instructions in the target language;
to provide examples of words and grammatical structures and give accurate explanations (e.g., of vocabulary and language points);
to use appropriate classroom language;
to select target-language resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, the Internet);
to monitor his or her own speech and writing for accuracy;
to give correct feedback on learner language;
to provide input at an appropriate level of difficulty;
to provide language-enrichment experiences for learners.
Medgyes considers learning to carry out these aspects of a lesson fluently and comprehensively in English to be an important dimension of teacher learning for those whose mother tongue is not English. There is a threshold proficiency level the teacher needs to have reached in the target language in order to be able to teach effectively in English. A teacher who has not reached this level of proficiency will be more dependent on teaching resources (e.g., textbooks, reference books) and less likely to be able to engage in improvisational teaching.
For teachers who arenative speakers of English, other discourse skills will also need to be acquired. These discourse skills relate to the following dimensions of teaching: to be able to monitor one’s language use in order to provide suitable learning input; to avoid unnecessary colloquialisms and idiomatic usage; to provide a model of spoken English appropriate for students learning English as an international language; to provide language input at an appropriate level for learners (Richards, 2011).
The important mean to value the quality of results for individual foreign language learning is European language portfolio. Foreign language competence standards may be organized in form of professional portfolio for the future teacher which contains vocational competence to be obtained during the studying. The aim of this qualification is formation and development of the professional competence. The main principle of the vocational training is the close development of a competent personality and the training of an active and responsible teaching stuff.
Portfolio has a great importance in the development of inner reach and creative personality. This approach helps to realize the next of the higher educational system organization: the bilingual principle that means the constant attention to students’ activity in the process of studying, their ability to take an active part in work, to change one speaking language for another; of self-development – forming of the conditions for supporting the natural curiosity of students; the principle of integrity that includes foreign language vocational competence (communicative, philosophic, psychological, pedagogical and information); of valuating teaching activity results of future teachers according to the certain criteria (Тадеєва, 2013).
The vocational competence of the future foreign language teachers in Europe in general and in Belgium as its inalienable part contains competence different in aim and content which studies motivational, emotionally resolute and evaluating components. They are connected with the cognitive and behavioral elements.
Having analyzed the investigations of prominent scholars we drew the conclusion that the competence approach in teacher training causes the organization of the training when a qualified teacher has a field for adaptation and self-development of several characteristics which form a block of professional teaching qualities of the new generation.
We define several characteristics for a successful foreign language teacher. The English teacher training in Belgium is directed to instruct the following: communicative competence; sociolinguistic competence; sociocultural competence; methodical competence; pragmatic competence.
The teachers for whom English is a foreign language should also obtain the language-specific competence. The norms for the teachers with English as a native and as a foreign language are different: the teachers should have skills that enable them to manage classroom discourse so that it provides maximum opportunities for language learning.
One must always improve vocational features of the future English language teacher by means of the English language self-learning. The important part of vocational foreign language teacher competence is the methodical competence of the future teachers. That is a characteristic of the education in the European Union.
Авдеева, Н. (2003). Ключевыекомпетентности – новаяпарадигмарезультата [Key Competence – New Paradigm of a Result]. In: Педагогика [Pedagogy], No 5, p. 34–39 (In Russian).
Закаулова, Ю. В. (2012). Компетентність як невід’ємна складова професійної освіти сучасного фахівця[Competence as an integral part of modern vocational education specialist]. In: Proceedings of the 28-th International Scientific Practical Conference in Philosophy, Philological, Juridical, Pedagogical, Economical, Psychological, Sociological and Political Sciences Generation of New Ideas for Scientific Research (13–14.12.2012). Gorlovka: FLP Pantyh Y.F., p. 47–51 (In Ukrainian).
Закаулова, Ю. В. (2012). Особливості підготовки педагогічних працівників у системі вищої професійної і академічної освіти Бельгії [Peculiarities of Teacher Training in the System of Higher Vocational and Academic Education in Belgium]. In: Online Conference Scientific Researches and their Practical Application. Modern State and Ways of Development (2–12.10.2012). Retrieved 30.01.2014from:http://www.sworld.com.ua/index.php/ru/conference/ the-content-of-conferences/archives-of-individual-conferences/oct-2012 (In Ukrainian).
Language Policy Unit. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages:Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Strasburg. Retrieved 30.01.2014 from www.coe.int/lang-CEFR
Ніколаєв, О. М. (2012). Компетентність та компетенція у сучасній педагогіці як педагогічні категорії [Competence and Capacity in Modern Pedagogy as Pedagogical Categories]. In: Проблемисучасноїпсихології [Problems of Modern Psychology], No15, p. 411 (In Ukrainian).
Пуховська, Л. П. Особистісна модель підготовки викладачів на Заході [Personal Model of Teacher Training in the West]. Педагогіка. Наукові праці[Pedagogy. Scientific Works], Volume 7. Retrieved 30.01.2014 from http://referatu.net.ua/newreferats/27/183320
Richards, J. (2011). Competence and Performance in Language Teaching. New York : Cambridge University Press.
Середа, І. (2003). Педагогічна підготовка вчителя в сучасному університеті[Teacher Training in Modern University]. In: Неперервна професійна освіта. Теорія і практика[Lifelong Vocational Education. Theory and Practice], No 2, p. 27–32 (In Ukrainian)
Тадеєва, М. І. (2013). Формування педагогічної компетентності майбутнього вчителя іноземних мов: європейський вимір[Formation of Pedagogical Competence for Future Foreign Language Teacher: European Approach]. Retrieved 30.01.2014 from: http://www.ime.edu-ua.net/em13/content/09tmidet.htm (In Ukrainian).
PhD in Pedagogy, Associate Professor,TETIANA KUCHAI
Bogdan Khmelnitsky National University at Cherkasy