The purpose of Slavic propaedeutic discipline we consider in formation and development of students' general cultural and professional competence, the ability to apply lessons learned in the theory and history of the main Slavic (Ukrainian) language, communicative linguistics, philology of text analysis, willingness to spread and popularize philological knowledge educational work with students. One of the main tasks of the course is to educate the native language tolerance to our and other languages, we engage students in discussions of philosophical and cultural orientation. The basis for reasoning serves, for example, what the German linguist H. Hadamera: “When we talk about eternal being of homeland, first of all we think about language…. native language ... in close proximity to the relative in it are customs, traditions and familiar world .... in real terms birthplace is primarily linguistic homeland” (Introduction to comparative and historical study of Slavic languages, 123).
In studying the theme “History and development of Slavic Studies” student take part in the conference the purpose of which is to get acquainted with scientific centers of the Slavs, the main activities of Ukrainian, Russian, Czech, Polish, Slovak, Croatian scientists I. Boduena, de Courtenay, F. Buslayeva, O. Vostokova, Y. Dobrovskuy, A. Krymskuy, T. Lera-Splavynskuy, M. Lomonosov, F. Mikloshych, L. Niderle, D. Ovsyanyko-Kulikovskiy, O. Potebnya O. Sobolevskuy, S. Smal-Stockiy, I. Sreznyevskuy, O. Tymchenko, P. Shafaryk, O. Shahmatov, V. Yahych, the works of modern Ukrainian linguists, writers and cultural figures: L. Bulahovskuy, O. Horbach, A. Zelen’ko, O. Kurylo, O. Melnychuk, H. Pivtorak, Yu. Shevelov (Sherekh). Slavists always acted as mediators tolerant towards intercultural countries and peoples. Also highlight the historical and cultural, social and economic characteristics of the era, which created and enrich the teaching of Slavic linguists, literary critics, historians Slavic peoples, experts in Slavic ethnography and folklore, we characterize slavist as linguistic personality. Abstracting publications we direct to acquire skills students present a general characterization of conceptual positions of scientists concerning the place of the native language in the world and in a family of closely related languages, their discussion on the educational function of language.
Offering for comparative analysis texts which represent Slavic languages we consider them as a national identity card of every nation. The topics of texts describe the history, literature, geography, and culture of the Slavic peoples and content promotes knowledge of the world mentality of each of the nations, teach a sense of citizenship, patriotism, forming research skills, the desire at least at the elementary level to master another language. For example we read an abstract of the poem “Testament” written by Shevchenko in various Slavic languages in order to find common language and different elements in different texts. Such tasks encourage the development of intelligence, creativity, freedom of thought. We form a need for mastering the art of words, define its role, place and opportunities for self-realization in the world of communicating. The attention to the original texts enables the students to increase their participation in the “dialogue of cultures”, it helps not only to understand the text, but also understand the features of the national outlook of the writer.
In the vocabulary of the language, as in a mirror, people's lives is reflected (Леонтьев, 1999), its linguistic wealth variety, harmony, simplicity and clarity in pronunciation, imagery, scenic, and is due to the specificity of thinking, attitude and worldview. In various Slavic languages saved to ten thousand words in Proto-Slavic origin. For example, we note that the words child and guy are interrelated. It turns out that in Indian European language -orbh means “small”. In Russian language the word appropriate and child in Ukrainian dialectal robya (unlike slovac term Robya – “Maid in person depending on the lord”In the ХІV–ХV centuries etymological root -orbh contributed to the derivatives' parobok “in the sense of” feudal dependent person, household, servant (in Polish language parobek “hireling”), and in the XVI–XVIII centuries the word has acquired another meaning – “single man” (cf. in German language erbe – “heir”).
Ukrainian word сват matchmaker has identical sound in Belarusian, Russian (svat), Bulgarian (сват), Serb. (сват), Slovenian (svât), Czech and Slovak (svat), Polish, Upper Lusatian (swat). The word is derived from pronominal bases svo, sve and interpreted as a “guest”, “stranger”, “alone”, “relative”, “friend” (History of the Ukrainian language. Vocabulary and phraseology).
Text material for the theme “The vocabulary and phraseology of the Slavic peoples”, offered to students of folklore and literature texts are aimed to find and explain the meanings of Slavic languages vocabulary (for example, the actual words of Ukrainianvarenyky, borshch,halushky, Belarusian vetraz’ “parus”, aposhni “ostanniy” Russian pashnya, derevnya, yamshchyk,etc.), lexical borrowing (eg, Polish: skarha, lizhko, mazurka, obitsyaty, keps’kyy, bilyzna, misto; Bulgarian: hlava, blahodat’, voskresnuty, podvyh, sotvoryty; Belarusian: nashchadak, ponedilok; Czech language: brama, parkan, rechnyk, chasopys etc.). Such borrowings are due to economic, political and cultural relations between Ukrainian and other Slavic languages, and are introduced to the Ukrainian language throughout the whole history of Ukrainian people.
Cognitive values have exercises which describe Ukrainian borrowing in the Slavic languages, for example, in Belarusian: traven’ (may), okhoronyaty, titka, in Russian: smalets’, pluhatar’, borshch, bondar, in Polish: hreczka, hopak, koczerga, hodowac, in Upper-Lusatian, Czech kozak languages. Useful are exercises which express interlingual homonyms: in Ukrainian mountain(gora) in Bulgarian Macedonian means forest (lis`); Russian word saucebox in Ukrainian means sudden, Polish saw in Ukrainian means ball Ukrainian loaf in Bulgarian means bride, Ukrainian vegetable in Polish means fruit; Russian izba means house, home farmer in Bulgarian izba is a dugout cellar in Serbian – cellar, in Polish izba means room chamber. The word “speech” in Russian means “said, uttered” in Ukrainian, Bulgarian languages the word means “thing”, “the subject”; the Polish “rzecz” means “thing, object, matter” (Rzecz pospolita – general case, republic state. The term “time” in Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Upper-Lusatian languages means “common notion of time” in Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Croatian languages means “hour”, in Bulgarian word “hour” means “year”.
In cross-cultural dialogue an important is phraseology. National and cultural peculiarities of the language system are shown through the phraseology and are the most vivid and distinctive. When translating paremographics fund from one language to another is important to know the characteristics the mentality of people. For example, compare such idioms as Ukrainian in the year one, Polish Za krola Cwieczka, Slovak za Kakana kral'a according to etymological phrasebook. Denoted phraseology concept perceived by native different languages equally, but images that underlying are specific and express ethnopsychology nations.
Expansion, deepening the knowledge of cross-cultural dialogue of Slavic peoples stimulates learning the theme “Traditions of the Slavic peoples”. Analyzing texts, doing educational, scientific work, reading fiction, performing tests, viewing videos, modeling game situations we notice mutual influence of cultures, common and distinctive features in the home, in the crafts, the family calendar and rituals Ukrainian, Polish, Macedonian, Bulgarians, Belarusians, Czechs, Russians, Slovaks, Serbs, Slovenes, Croats, Sorbs.
We compare, for example, Ukrainian Slovakian holiday “Years” described in the text. The idea of family holidays means to be thankful to spirits and pagan gods for a rich harvest and prayer for the harvest of next year. Each house gets ready for the holiday. People clean the house, bake goose, and cook beer. Polish people have a holiday Małgorzata which is also associated with a rich harvest of grain. They say: “holy Malgorzata the House is full of Bread”. In ceremonies that are performed by Slovenes in St. Yuriy Day reflects the old idea of awakening of nature, the magic power of greenery and flowers, which were collected in meadows and then people decorated houses, people and animals. This holiday is also called “Green Yuriy” and the main character was a man of holidays, decorated with herbs. The same character holiday exists in Ukraine. Bulgarian holiday Laduvannya (divination by rings), which occurs on New Year reminds Ukrainian girls divination. At the wedding, Ukrainian and Belarusian people bake tutorial pidruchnik padruchnik “kind of loaf that is put to a young under the arm” Russians baked “stolovuhu” “wedding bread”, Slovaks has radostnik, radovnik “ritual cookies” Czech people baked radvanec cookies that are baked on the eve of a young marriage, at the bachelorette party (Slavic ethnolinguistics). Analysis of Czech, Bulgarian, Serbian, Slovenian and other traditions helps the students philologists to conclude each of stored rites Slavs permeates relationship.
Students which have a research interest to Slavonic philology are invited to prepare speeches “Ukrainian-Polish (Slovak, Czech, Russian) language contacts”, “Ukrainistics in Bulgaria (the Czech Republic, Belarus, Slovakia, Poland, Croatia)”. We consider that Ukraine is a multinational state, so we draw attention to the cultural heritage of the Slavic peoples in our country, we find out whether and how schools operate with Polish, Slovak and other languages. It is natural to turn to the acquisition of the Ukrainian writers. It is known, for example, that Lesya Ukrayinkawas good in Ancient Greek, Latin, German, French, English, Russian, Bulgarian, she translated from fourteen languages. Each translation for a writer, according to the Ivan Franko, was like a gold bridge which combined the Ukrainian language and Ukrainian soul with many languages in the world. To create future topics it is important to find a research material. Here we can combine the various fields of knowledge: history of ethnicity, history, culture, history, language and history of literature, ethnic pedagogy and ethnic psychology. Method of reconstruction is of a great importance (history, culture, language) it allows to link the course of history, philosophy, literature, excluding repeat, extends the methodological toolbox of listeners. When you master the course of pedagogy it is important so-called dialogues of pedagogical culture of the Slavic peoples according the works of Janusz Korczak. Polish writer, teacher, doctor Janusz Korczak with their pets in orphanage house with two hundred orphans in 1942, was taken to the concentration camp at Treblinka. He could not save the children, but “did not leave them in the face of death, if not leave them in the face of life”. The same fate had Vasil Sukhomlinsky in 1942 he wore in his chest a fragments of lead German bullet. A personality and activity of beautiful Polish educator Janusz Korczak made a great impression on Ukrainian teacher. Studying the works of Old doctor (as in Poland was called Korczak), who was committed to children prompted V. Sukhomlynskiy to title his talented book “The heart is given to children”.
Lectures, seminars, workshops we enrich with interactive technologies. Extensive problem-search capabilities to implement interdisciplinary relationships offer seminars and conferences. Lessons-excursions, “dialogues personalities” complement by exhibits of scientific papers of scientists Slavic and student essays and role-playing elements. During this work the future teachers of literature learn how to put forward hypotheses, argue their responses, compare. Working with texts of Slavic books, newspapers, magazines, viewing the video, cultural analysis of websites of Slavic states gives the students skills in researching, promotes knowledge of the world mentality of each of the nations.
So Slavic philology is a powerful means of cross-cultural dialogue containing rich factual material that promotes understanding the process of formation and development of ethnic cultural communities in time and space. Multicultural approach leads to a more conscious attitude of students to such questions as features of belief, history, culture and character of Ukrainian and other Slavic peoples. In future career, teaching native language, a teacher adequately presents its place in the world's languages, as well as in a family of closely related Slavic languages.
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Доклад Генерального директора о глобальном плане действий по достижению целей в области образования для всех [Report of the General Director on the global action plan to achieve the goals of Education for All] / ЮНЕСКО: исполнительный совет: сто семьдесят четвертая сессия: п. 8 предварительной повестки дня. Retrieved 01.09.2014from: http://unesdoc.unesco. org/images/0014/001442/144245R.pdf (in Russian).
Історія української мови. Лексика і фразеологія [History of the Ukrainian language. Vocabulary and phraseology] / за ред. В. М. Русанівського. – К. : Наук. думка, 1983. – 739 p. (in Ukrainian).
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Мацько, Л. І., Семеног, О. М. Українська мова: 10–11 класи. Програма для профільного навчання учнів загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів. Філологічний напрям,профіль – українська філологія [Ukrainian language: 10 – 11 classes. The profile education program for secondary schools’ pupils. Philological direction, profile – Ukrainian philology], К. : Грамота, 2011. – 135 p. (in Ukrainian).
Славянскаяэтнолингвистика[Slavic ethnolinguistics]Retrieved 01.09.2014 from: http://kapija.narod.ru. (in Russian).
Царук, О. Українська мова серед інших слов’янських мов: етнологічні та граматичні параметри [Ukrainian language among other Slavic languages: ethnological and grammar options], Дніпропетровськ : Наука і освіта, 1998. – 324 p. (in Ukrainian).
Этимологическийсловарьславянскихязыков. Праславянскийлексическийфонд [Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic languages. Proto-Slavic lexical fund] / под ред. О. Н. Трубачева, А. Ф. Журавлева. – М. : Наука, 1974. – 2010. – Вып. 1–36 (in Russian).
PhD in Pedagogy, LARYSA MOVCHAN
DEVELOPMENT OF PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCIES THROUGH VOCATIONALLY ORIENTED LANGUAGE LEARNING IN SWEDEN ABSTRACT
The article tackles the problem of developing plurilingual competencies through vocationally oriented foreign language in Sweden. The author analyses the pedagogical conditions of realization of plurilingual education at upper-secondary schools, vocational and higher education establishments and the aspects of teacher education for this purpose. The vocational foreign language education in Sweden is determined by the country’s multilingual policy and English is given much priority in many societal domains including educational. English and other foreign languages are used as the medium of instruction while teaching the content of other subjects. At the higher educational level students are encouraged to write research papers in English. Participation of Sweden in numerous multilingual initiatives of the Council of Europe providing the opportunities for both teachers and learners of vocational and higher educational institutions with the opportunities of the cross-border cooperation in this sphere and international mobility. Still, there is a problem of teacher’s training for teaching foreign languages in professional spheres. Using skills as a framework of foreign languages for specific purposes teachers are provided with the necessary knowledge and tools to deal with their own students’ specializations.
Key words:VOLL, SPRINT, plurilingualism, multilingualism, professional education, competence, labour mobility. INTRODUCTION
Higher education undergoes transformations in the flow of world and European tendencies, the main of which are integration and globalization. Professionally/vocationally oriented language learning (VOLL) must meet the requirements of the global market and satisfy the language needs of modern professionals in cross-cultural communication in business. In this respect, it is important to study and take into account international theoretical and practical pedagogical experience. Sweden has positive background in foreign language education, in particular in the professional sphere and ranks the top among the suppliers of qualitative educational services. Sweden refers to the problem of developing plurilingual competencies as the key factor of raising its competitiveness in the multilingual world economy.
THE AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to consider the pedagogical conditions of developing plurilingual competencies of students through vocational foreign language training in Sweden.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODS
The issue of development plurilingualism in vocational education was brought up by the Council of Europe (COE) as one of the key competencies at the global labour market and ever since has been in the centre of numerous scientific researches (J. Van Ekk, V. Mackewitsch, J. Trimm, B. Spolsky, J.M. Vez and others). Swedish scientists H. Söderlundh (2004), B. Melander (2005), J. Kalgren (2003), J. Nixon (2005), I. Lindberg (2007), C. Linder (2008), L. Lundahl (2013), O. Viberg (1993) and others tackled the problems of bilingual education in the multilingual educational surrounding. We will study the experience of Sweden of plurilingual education and in the context of the European multilingual policy.
In the article we refer to vocationally oriented foreign language learning (VOLL) which is provided at upper secondary school (gymnasieskola), on the stage of professional/ vocational education and training (VET) at vocational colleges and higher educational establishments.
The research methods we used are: theoretical analysis, synthesis, the method of studying educational and historical documents.
During the last decades, scientific research has been made in the sphere of multilingualism and plurilingualism. The COE recognized the necessity of learning at least two foreign languages for employment and further education saying that international firms lose their business because of the lack of foreign language proficiency among their staff. In 2003 the International Association of Multilingualism was established aiming at raising awareness and interest in multilingualism and third language acquisition for the future employment and scientific research (Erickson, 2006). The COE put forward the idea of developing plurilingualism among the European citizens for successful cooperation in all social spheres, better understanding, empathy and preserving linguistic and cultural diversity. The COE differentiates between multilingualism and plurilingualism, saying that multilingualism is the existence of many languages within one society or societal group while plurilingualism involves broadening of person’s language repertoire from mother tongue to other languages, development of his communicative competence while interacting the experience of using these languages (CEFR, 4). Multilingualism serves the basis for developing plurilingualism, which also concerns development of intercultural awareness. In particular, it is very important for international economic cooperation, where understanding partners’ cultural background can have a dramatic impact at the business setting.
The statistical data of Eurobarometer (2010) showed that 40 % of the recruiters recognized the necessity of foreign language proficiency for employment (Eurobarometer, 2010, 19). Thus, the Bruges communiqué (2010) called for ensuring “the provision of language learning and intercultural competences in VET curricula, providing the opportunities for both teachers and learners in VET with special emphasis on the cross-border cooperation in this sphere and international mobility” (COE, 2010). The European Commission established the European Business Platform for Multilingualism with the purpose of highlighting the necessity of plurilingual skills in in international business and assisting the companies in improving their multilingual business communication. The Business Platform has launched a project called CELAN (Network for the promotion of language strategies for competitiveness and employability) (COE, 2013). Plurilingualism started to be regarded as a part of professional competence of a modern specialist.
The research shows, that at upper secondary and tertiary levels of education in Sweden there is strong emphasis of contemporary policies on serving economic functions by promoting employability, flexibility and enterprise. First, VOLL in Sweden is shaped by the European strategy of foreign language education for employment, mobility and life-long learning. Second, Sweden has always tried to build up a highly competitive, smart and sustainable economy due to effective education and prioritization of foreign languages in its contents. In 1950 Sweden recognized its multilingual situation as a result of rapid influx of immigrants to the country and introduced the multilingual policy according to which Swedish became the official language; English was prioritized as the main foreign language, mandatory at all stages of education; and the Swedish citizens obtained the right to be educated in their mother tongue (Marklund, 1979, 18–19). The position of English in the Swedish community has actually become comparable to that of a second language rather than a foreign language, since many people in Sweden today use English on a daily basis in different contexts (Lindberg, 2011). Thus, 89 % of the population can communicate in this language in everyday life and for professional needs, which testifies to their being bilingual (Eurobarometer, 2006).
In 2005 the Swedish parliament reinforced the privileged position of English in higher education (Ricksdag, 2005). English started to prevail in such domains as banking, engineering, informational technologies and in scientific research. With the development of international businesses the economic faculties and universities of the country introduced various courses of business English. For instance, to apply for the master’s degree program in economics at the Stockholm School of Economics a bachelor has to reach the level of Proficiency in English (equivalent to C1 as defined by the CEFR). Some bachelor programs require satisfactory grades in TOEFL. Thus, at the end of the course, the students must understand the concept of conducting negotiations, analyze each specific situation, create and apply the corresponding strategy, which incorporates the appropriate language means. The students are encouraged to write master’s theses in English. The requirements for the second language are exam result of B2 (commercial equivalent) or successful completion of an accredited course at a CEMS school. The third language has an extension and exposure requirement (which can be met through a 5 ECTS course, a significant period of working in the language, or A2 results on a commercial exam) (SSE, 2012, 13).
The syllabus for the subject of English for upper secondary education says that the knowledge of this language increases the individual's opportunities to participate in different social and cultural contexts, as well as in global studies and working life (Skolverkett, 2007, 1).
Despite the priority given to English, Sweden recognizes the necessity of building up plurilingual skills of pupils in other languages. For instance, starting from the 7th grade of the compulsory school three foreign languages are taught: German, French or Spanish by choice. By the way, Swedish is taught as the mother tongue to the Swedes or as a foreign language to ethnical minorities, which reflects the plurilingual aspirations of the country.
Sweden has a long-standing tradition of VOLL in a multilingual society. In the last decades more and more upper-secondary and vocational schools use content and language integrated learning (CLIL), which is the use of a foreign or a second language as the medium of instruction. SPRINT (Språk – och innehållsintegrerad inlärning och undervisning) is the Swedish equivalence to CLIL. SPRINT is a so-called umbrella term, which embraces both learning and teaching the content of a non-language subject with the help of a foreign or a second language and a bilingual education, based on the immersion programs initiated in Canada. With the increasing demand of the population for proficiency in other languages, SPRINT started to be applied with reference to German, Spanish and French. Nowadays the use of SPRINT ranges from some subjects of the curriculum to the whole curriculum. SPRINT is now considered as the step towards plurilingual education since the great number of the Swedish pupils and students are exposed to learning by means of English as the mandatory language at all stages of education, or other foreign languages. SPRINT is mainly used in the upper-secondary and vocational education, when the students have already acquired the fundamental knowledge in the majority of sciences. Furthermore, almost all Swedish universities offer training in English, which makes Sweden very much attractive to foreign students. According to J. Nixon, 122 upper secondary schools (23 %) offered some kind of SPRINT education in Sweden of the total amount of schools in 1999 (Nixon, 1999, 6). SPRINT embraces such languages as the medium of instruction: English − 75,0 % of schools, German − 8,0 %, French − 6,0 %, Finnish− 2,0 % and others − 4,5 % correspondingly (Nixon, 1999, 18).
There are several reasons for using SPRINT at vocational education. First, English cannot take up half of the curriculum. Secondly, teachers use the native language as well when teaching the content of other subjects in English. Third, while learning professional fields through the medium of a foreign language students acquire professional foreign language proficiency which will be necessary for further education or future career with regard to increasing labour mobility.
If we compare the required language proficiency of the secondary school leavers according to the CEFR and those of Sweden, we notice that the Swedish standards of proficiency in English upon leaving the upper-secondary school are higher and in some programs, where English is taught as the target language, correspond to the level C (Erickson, 2006, 8) (see Table 1).
Correspondence of the Swedish school syllabus for foreign languages
with the language proficiency levels according to CEFR
Stages of foreign language teaching
in the Swedish school system
Levels of proficiency according
1-st stage (1–3 grades)
2-nd stage (4−5 grades)
3-rd stage (6–7 grades)
4-th stage (8−9 grades)
5-th stage (course А) (10-th grade)
6-th stage (course В) (11-th grade)
7-th stage (course С) (12-th grade)
The study of English and other modern languages (German, Spanish, French or Russian) at the upper secondary school comprises three courses (A, B and C). Course A is a mandatory course for all professional programs taught at Swedish gymnasiums, while the higher course B is compulsory for such programs as “Social sciences”, “Natural sciences”, “Arts and Esthetics” and “Technical”. Every program has from two to 4 orientations, so that students can have wider opportunities for choosing a university or a college for further training.
Due to globalization of business faculties of finance, accounting and economics, level B (Vantage) of proficiency in English is demanded from future students as many of their courses are taught in this language. The syllabus for English for the gymnasia pupils states that at the end of the course B they should:
understand longer sequences of connected oral discourse communicated directly, or via the media where the content may be unfamiliar, and of a relatively theoretical nature;
have the ability to present contents in writing in a clear and well-structured way, as well as be able to express themselves in a varied and personal manner with respect to the audience and situation;
have a knowledge of current conditions, history and cultures of the countries where English is spoken;
be able to present aspects of their own culture and country to persons from a different cultural background.
These skills will be needed in future professional activity for creating company’s presentations, presentations of products, negotiating various business issues, run business abroad, successfully communicate with foreign partners.
Optional course “С” is designed for those who enter the faculties where languages will be major subjects. Thus, as we see in Table 1, some students who are enrolled to Swedish universities already have level C (Effective Proficient) in English (Skolverkett, 2007, 9–11).
As for other foreign languages, the levels of proficiency have a slight shift and are correspondingly lower, varying from A1 to B1. Still it testifies to the fact of developing plurilingual competence of Swedish schoolchildren with the respect of necessity of this competency in the globalized professional world. This tradition continues on further stages of education, including university and university colleges with the shift to VOLL.
Thus, faculties of business and economics of Swedish universities of Malmö, Linköping, Gothenburg as well as Stockholm School of Economics and others maintain further development of foreign language proficiency with respect of the future professional activity of students. For instance, on the website of Stockholm School of Economics we find a lot of listed programs or courses taught by means of English: “The specializations in Applied Economic Analysis and International Economics have a joint intake. Once accepted to the M.Sc. in Economics, you choose your specialization after completing a common first semester. The program is best suited for students with a strong undergraduate background in economics. It demands an excellent analytical ability and the ambition to put your work to the test with the best people in the field. All courses are given in English by the internationally renowned faculty” (MSc, 2014).
It goes without saying bilingual teaching should be constructed on well thought of methodical approaches and carefully constructed lesson plans. According to O. Viberg, when exposed to bilingual teaching students acquire fluency and show better usage of language and subject specific vocabulary, while pronunciation and grammar skills lag behind, as the stress of learning is put on the first two issues. O. Viberg has the opinion that when fluency of the speech is reached and the subject specific vocabulary is acquired the content of the subject can be learnt to a full extent (Viberg, 1993, 340–385).
In order to facilitate efficient teaching in English lecturers in profession specific subjects must have a very good command of this language as they teach students with ethnically and educationally heterogeneous background. Language teachers need to understand the context in which the language will be used as well as any specialist concepts and terminology. In many cases, this involves a thorough revision of current methodologies. It will also require a new approach to teacher training. There are two kinds of teacher training for this method. Teacher training is often provided at university departments with little awareness of what is needed to teach language for non-academic purposes. Stockholm university provides the necessary training of teachers who choose to teach a foreign language and other subject. Foreign language teachers’ training comprises among subject specific programs also the course of “Business English”, which can last from 5 to 20 credit weeks. Teachers for upper-secondary schools and vocational schools study for 5–5,5 years and can choose up to three subjects to teach. At the same time, many teachers of other subjects follow courses in English, without ever considering the possibility of using that language as a language of instruction (Munklinde, 2008, 25). There are also indications that using a native speaker of the target language to teach SPRINT is beneficial both for students and teachers (Munklinde, 2008, 30).
Besides, all the Swedish universities participate in student exchange programs. Stockholm School of Economics can offer about 170 students a year to go abroad to one of its Partner Universities. Most of the partner universities are members of the two networks PIM (Partnership in International Management) and CEMS (The Global Alliance for Management Education). The majority of the exchange places are part of the Master's program, but a few places are on offer at the Bachelor's level. The exchange normally means that students go abroad for one semester (autumn or spring) during year two. When recruiting, companies tend to ask for a proof of language competences such as long stays abroad, standardized tests, exchange programs, internships, professional experience, or post-graduate degrees.
The vocationally oriented foreign language learning in Sweden is consistent with the key strategy of the COE aimed at promoting plurilingualism in a professional sphere. To increase mobility of the future specialists in the global labour market, enable growth of international business and effective communication a great number of schools, vocational and higher educational establishments integrate teaching the contents of profession specific subjects through a medium of foreign languages. The problems that need further consideration and attending include the lack of time to achieve the study goals set by bilingual programs.
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PhD (in Technical sciences), Associate Professor, HANNA KRASILNIKOVA
SYSTEM OF MONITORING THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
IN UK UNIVERSITIES: EXPERIENCE FOR UKRAINE ABSTRACT
The article deals with the experience of the use of the system of internal monitoring of the quality of higher education in UK Universities. There has been analyzed the existing model of the system of higher education monitoring at the level of a higher education institution within the scope of the British higher education model, discovered by a famous American education philosopher P. Monroe. There has been characterized the new document“The UK Quality Code for Higher Education”, which regulates the internal procedures of providing and monitoring the quality of UK universities. There have been provided the data of the comparative analysis of the trends of the internal monitoring of the Higher education quality of some UK universities. The monitoring trends, inherent in all higher education institutions, are the reports of external examiners, feedback of the students, reports of the institutional checkups. Other internal monitoring trends depend on the status, mission of an academic institution and are related to the polling of employers, higher education institutions’ alumni, analysis of the reports of the experts of the new curricula evaluation boards, etc. There has been analyzed the cyclic model of higher education monitoring in UK universities.
Key words: monitoring, system of providing the quality of higher education, quality management, cyclic monitoring model. INTRODUCTION
Up to the 80-s of the previous century in the European universities despite declaring the problem of quality as the central one, there haven’t been developed special mechanisms or tools of its provision neither on the level of a higher institution, nor on the level of the state. Quality control was a part of informal mechanisms of academic community, which were self-regulated, not related to external evaluation and were not the subject of a special responsibility of universities (Дирк Ван Дамм, Питер Ван дер Хиден, Кэролин Кэмпбелл, 2003, 7).
During last 15–20 years in many European countries there were formed national systems of education quality provision, based on the own quality assessment approaches and traditions. Thus in Europe according to Josep Grifoll, the Technical Director for Quality Assurance at AQU Catalonia, Vice-President of the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA), there is absent the unified system of institutional assessment of education establishments’ activity (Grifoll, 2013).
THE AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study lies in providing the answers to the urgent issues for the reform of the national higher education. At the same time the foreign experience can’t be the model, but will serve as the information for the analysis and help in making optimal decisions, avoiding own risks and mistakes. The study is based on the traditional analysis of the literature, Internet sources, and also on generalizing the experience of the author’s participation in the international education projects, conferences and seminars in the issues of provision and monitoring of the higher education quality.
For the analysis of the system of provision and monitoring of the higher education quality we have chosen the UK, as the country with a developed system of higher education and considerable achievements in its quality assurance.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODS
According to American philosopher P. Monroe, it is expedient to single out three logically possible education model variants, corresponding to the dominant types of political, social and economic systems:
continental European countries’ (Germany, France, Italy, Russia) model, in which the central role in regulating, financing and conducting the monitoring belongs to the state;
UK model with the minimal interference of the government with the education process;
USA’s model, in which the function of education management has been passed to other nongovernmental forms of society’s self-organization and is realized on the levels of the state, local self-government and private initiative (Монро, 2013).
Let’s consider historically formed in Europe “UK” model of education quality, which is based on internal self-evaluation by the academic community. In modern UK this model is harmonically supplemented with a continental one, based on the external evaluation of a higher institution from the point of view of its responsibility before the society and the state (Біліченко, 2014 ) and partly with an American one. All the decisions, that define the perspective of the education branch development, despite the political force in power, are adopted by the parliament or the government of UK (Тупичак, 2012).
To the study of the separate aspects of the system of higher education quality provision and monitoring in UK there are dedicated the works of the national researchers (N. Bidyuk, S. Bilichenko, P. Kryazhev, A. Nezhentseva, M. Kysil, H. Poberezska, K. Stetsenko, L. Tupychak and others) and foreign scientists (D.Westerheijden, P. Williams, N. Aksenova, V. Baidenko, O. Vorozheykina, O. Hrivennaya, A. Muravyova, O. Oleynikova, O. Pokladyuk, D. Saprykin, L. Tarasyuk and others).
The research methods we used are: theoretical analysis, synthesis, the method of studying educational and historical documents.
UK is the cofounder of Bologna process and the initiator of ESG creation, the country which was among the first ones in 1985 where was conducted the first higher education quality assessment. Herewith, in a polytechnics sector the system of external evaluation had existed since the end of 1960-s (Дирк Ван Дамм, Питер Ван дер Хиден, Кэролин Кэмпбелл, 2003, 16). The system of quality assurance, created in this country, sets the following tasks for itself: ensuring adhering to academic qualification standards by Higher education institutions; ensuring the quality of education services; improving the possibilities for the students to obtain education and professional experience; providing the accountability of higher education institutions concerning the state investment; providing trustworthy information about the education quality and standards to all those who want or need to get it (Уильямс, 2010). By the way, namely in UK the notion “monitoring” was first used in the respect of getting information about the functioning of higher education institutions.
The country has a multistage system of universities accreditation and of the evaluation of their curricula with the leading role of the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) for Higher Education, founded in 1997. QAA is an independent non-governmental organ, which is the main pacemaker of the assessment approaches to the higher education quality in the UK (while having certain procedural differences in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales) (Уильямс, 2010).
For a long time in the country in the sphere of higher education there has existed the tradition of local educational policy, based on the principles of institutional autonomy and deregulation. Academic institutions are independent self-governing corporations of higher education with a wide range of powers, for instance related to the awarding of degrees and other qualifications. Besides this, higher institutions themselves but not QAA, accredit their own curricula.
On the legislative level, as well as by the way in Ukraine, there has not been assigned the requirement of the functioning of the system of internal provision and monitoring of the higher education quality in UK universities. The principle of the primary responsibility of the higher education institutions for the provision of the quality of the academic and scientific processes has been laid down in the notion of the autonomy of the higher education institutions of Britain and other European countries. At the same time professional education and training institutions legislatively are obliged to have such systems, that function in self-assessment mode.
Until recently all internal procedures of the provision and monitoring of the universities’ quality in UK were fulfilled according to “Quality and standards in UK universities: A guide to how the system works”, developed by QAA. This document consists of ten chapters: grad school research programmes; different forms of study (including the distance one); students with special needs; students’ external examining; students’ appeals and complaints; students’ assessment; structure of the programmes, their approval, monitoring and review; assistance in job placement; practicums and internship; admission to universities. It was a part of the collection of universities’ regulatory documents (qualification framework of the higher education in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland; academic standards in different knowledge fields, which describe the expected results of mastering subjects, also including the level of the skills, aptitudes, competencies development; specification of educational programmes) under the title “Academic infrastructure”.
Starting with 2012–2013 academic year for the replacement of “Academic infrastructure” QAA developed the new document “The UK Quality Code for Higher Education”, consisting of three parts (The UK Quality Code for Higher Education, 2014):