The nature of the “adaptation” phenomenon from the standpoint of biology and physiology is considered in two contexts as a mechanism for the evolution of species, communities and as a mechanism of adaptation of individuals to the external environment.
From the perspective of the social sciences, several formulations of the phenomenon of adaptation and its characteristics are proposed. “Adaptation” (from the Latin. Adaptatio – adapt, arrange) – adaptation of the body, the personality, the nature of its specific effects or to changed conditions of life in general. Adaptation indemnifies for the shortcomings of the usual behavior in the new environment. Thanks adaptation, the opportunities for the optimal functioning of the body, the person in an unusual setting are created.
Changes in society far exceed the dynamics of personal readiness to adapt them. The education system in this situation is called for future vocational training teachers to help to form the qualities necessary for becoming professionally capable, competitive, active personality, able to adapt to the real conditions of the teaching and manufacturing process of vocational school as soon as possible. Therefore, adaptation as a process and adaptability and as the property of the individual becomes fundamental in the process of training and professional activities for a future vocational learning teacher.
As the results of the investigations and our own observations social adaptation for the young vocational learning teacher is a fundamental compared to other types of adaptation. In social adaptation, we mean multivariate and multidimensional process of personality entering in a new social environment for joint activities in the direction of progressive changes in personality and environment.
Regarding vocational school social environment for the young teacher professional learning is a teaching staff and students of the institution that provide interaction, communication, consistency to the social environment of each teacher.
Psychological adaptation is closely linked with social one and due to the public nature of environmental change and human consciousness. Psychological adaptation is a process that occurs in response to a significant novelty of the environment, including the motivation of adaptive human behavior, formation of goals and programs of behavior. Psychological adaptation provides dynamic adaptive activity of individual emotional characteristics according to the individual psyche.
Character of psychological adaptation depends on the characteristics of occupational adaptation as a source of emotional tension and discomfort may be mistakes and fails in a professional sense. According to the theory of A. Wenger, the reason for exclusion may include individual psychological characteristics of personality that adapts; features of his activities; features that are emerging in this activity relationship with others (Wenger, 1995).
The core of the adaptation is the professional adaptation. It has its own structure, form, content, mechanisms and driving forces, path, tendencies and mechanisms of development that are exposed to psychological and educational adjustment inside (by the teacher) and externally (by the team). The most common definition of it belongs to K. Platonov: “professional adaptation to the new conditions is carried out through systematic implementation activities which is constantly complicates in these new conditions” (Platonov, 1972).
A number of researchers associates the professional adaptation concept with the mastery of knowledge, abilities, skills, rules and functions of professional activity (S. Vershlovskyy), others believe that adaptation is “the process of integration into the profession, mastery, application of professional knowledge and skills to specific situations” (Shyyan, 1996).
We believe that professional adaptation is the process of joining a young vocational learning teacher in a new social environment, in the system of interpersonal relations of a particular staff, during which standards of thought and behavior production takes place according to the values system and behavioral norms of this staff. These three components of professional adaptation are closely linked with each other in real practice cause each other to form integration. Therefore, of particular importance in the preparation of vocational training teachers to the professional adaptation is the formation of their readiness for it even within the university.
While studying at university students formed the basis of employment, occupational activity – namely, readiness for it. The concept of professional readiness is seen as a category of activity theory (state) and of course, on the one hand, because of the process of preparation, on the other is aim to something (Ростунов, 1984).
Analysis of the existing approaches shows that most often the readiness is studied as a certain state of consciousness, mind, functional systems responsible action in a situation or prepare for them. Overall readiness for the professional activity is regarded as an active individual in the state, causing activity; as a result of activities; quality, which determines the settings for professional situations and tasks; as a prerequisite for purposeful activity and its regulation, stability, efficiency; as a form of person activity that is included in the overall flow of its terms (Шавир, 1981).
The main feature of readiness for professional adaptation, as the researchers note, is the integrative nature of the professional work of the teacher that reflected in the order of internal structures, coherence of the major individual professional components, the stability and consistency of its functioning. Thus, the readiness for professional activity characterizes features that suggest a holistic expression of all aspects of future vocational learning teacher, including its cognitive, emotional and motivational components.
Analysis of scientific approaches to the readiness for professional adaptation formation allows distinguishing two components: psychological and activity.
However, the current reality shows that without a well-developed professional mobility teacher have no prospects of not only professional growth but also it will be difficult to go through the process of occupational adaptation.
Professional mobility supposes to have ability of the generalized system of professional techniques and skills to use them effectively to perform any tasks related industries and relatively easy to move from one activity to another. Professional mobility provides a high level of generalized professional knowledge, readiness to quick selection and implementation of the best ways to perform different tasks in the educational activity. With the rapid changes in technology and production technology the professional mobility becomes an important component of a specialist qualification structure... (Рапацевич, 2005).
At present, professional mobility plays an important role in modern society, because it is directly related to the level of professional education and human and it is the most reliable channel upward occupational mobility. Noteworthy is the opinion of R. Prima that professional teacher mobility should be considered as “a basis for effective response of the individual to “a challenge” of modern society, a kind of personal life, behind the effective transformation of the social environment and himself in it; system multifaceted phenomenon that requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to research; internal (motivational and intellectual and volitional) the potential of the individual, the underlying in a basis of flexible orientation and active response to dynamic social and professional terms as consistent with its personal positions; ensure readiness for changes and implementation of preparedness in their life (individual readiness to modern life, with its multifaceted factors of choice); determines professional activity, subjectivity, creative approach to professional activities, personal development, contributing to the efficient solution of professional problems” (Пріма, 2009).
Thus, in the era of globalization changes in society, new social and economic conditions in the Ukraine when developing the market, it is necessary not only to increase the professional level of teaching staff, but also to form their readiness and ability for professional mobility. This conclusion prompted us to our results when we saw that one of the major problems in the development of psychological and educational preparedness of vocational learning teacher for professional adaptation is his inability to assess their ability and to predict their personal development, to find their own solution to a situation of choice, to defend their individuality, providing career prospects. This creates a stereotype and as a result – professional doom (unloved work and yet fear to change it). Such professional immaturity (not only in teaching activities), inability to respond for themselves and for the results of their work and inability critically to assess their usefulness in this field cause dissatisfaction and sometimes-mental strain of identity.
During the investigation it had been conducted a survey of vocational training teachers and masters of vocational schools (367 individuals) in order to identify attitudes towards their professional activities and changes in the profession. 12 % of respondents find a complete professional satisfaction in working with students, 48 % have no career prospects, though confident in their abilities to management experience, 35 % would like to change the profession because they cannot work under the new requirements, but ready for such changes. Five present did not respond. A third of teachers believes, that they chose the wrong profession, but do not see prospects for fulfillment in some other activity. Survey results showed that modern vocational training teachers have a need for knowledge about the nature and significance of occupational adaptation, occupational mobility, would be able to predict the personal and professional growth, personal and professional growth of students. On this basis, there is a contradiction between the social order for the mobile professional skilled workers and the real possibilities of vocational training teachers on a full implementation of tasks in terms of vocational training in vocational schools. Therefore, you should review the content of future vocational training teachers’ training and the content of the methodological work in vocational schools to provide an environment for vocational learning teacher’s personal development that would be professionally mobile and ready for adaptation and professional training of future skilled workers.
Summary results of the research indicate that the formation of readiness for professional adaptation of future vocational training teachers’ process of training would be effective if we find a key competence, metaprofessional quality, engineering-pedagogical competencies (technical, pedagogical, social, psychological, and legal and ethical competence, professional didactic competence, competences of control, organizational (managerial) competencies, communicative competence and teamwork, the ability for reflection and self-development) and personal qualities and abilities (social activity (finds reflection in the readiness to participate and be directly involved in various community events, projects of different semantic orientation), high adaptability to different social situations functionally distinct activities, creativity, creative transformation of any situation.
Having professional mobility assumes the readiness of future vocational training teachers to the changes performed by professional tasks, job, educational ability to quickly solve the situation, explore new educational technology training and therefore a vocational training teacher will be ready for professional adaptation and professional growth.
Teaching practice shows that the teaching activities if not supported by the scientific and methodical work – quickly fades professional teaching skills. In our opinion, teacher professionalism and his professional mobility are closely related. Professional mobility directly appears in the ability to see and formulate educational objectives based on analysis of teaching situations and find the best ways to solve them.
Exploring the development of social and occupational andragogist mobility, Y. Kalynovskyi as criteria for evaluating mobility provides: characteristics and personality traits (openness to the world, trust in people and yourself, flexibility, speed, control localization, tolerance); skills (reflection, self-regulation, self-goal identification); abilities (to see and understand the nature of changes in society, and to see alternative variation of the situation); capacity (constructive, productive thinking, the necessary changes in the design microsocium, solve problems, adapt to change) (Калиновский, 2001). Therefore, the key and professional competences aimed at developing the important qualities of vocational training teacher and improving his occupational mobility and, consequently, the professional adaptation.
Thus, the formation of future vocational training teachers’ readiness to the professional adaptation in terms of changes in society during globalization, involves the formation of vocational training teacher professional mobility that is specific triplex, which includes as its identity, ensuring its internal development through the formation of core competencies and all-professional; his professional activities determined by events that change the environment and the result of the acts of the teacher self-realization in life and profession; process of transforming student by teacher, himself, and his professional and social environment.
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Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Full Professor, OLENA SEMENOG
Institute of Pedagogical and Adult Education, NAPS of Ukraine
Address: 9 M. Berlynskoho Str., Kyiv, 04060, Ukraine
Professional Training Of Future Teacher
In Cross-Cultural Dialogue ABSTRACT
On the example of propaedeutic educational course “Introduction to Slavic Philology” features of future teachers’ professional training of cross-cultural dialogue are considered. Among the main objectives of the course, attention is focused on native language and other languages admirer’s tolerance education, students’ skills formation of making linguistic and cultural comments on folklore, literary texts and discourses; building a strategy and tactics of intercultural communication in accordance to national psychology.
The examples of tokens, “ukrainisms” in Slavic languages and phrases are presented;also, it is considered Slavists as tolerant intermediaries towards intercultural cooperation of countries and peoples, the need for skills of translation activity that caused the cross-cultural dialogue.
Based on scientific and encyclopedic sources analysis, educational course testing is making conclusion that Slavic philology is a powerful tool for cross-cultural dialogue. It contains of big factual material that promotes understanding the process of formation and development of ethno-cultural communities in time and space, formation of human values and national identity of supranational cross-cultural thought, ways of tolerant behavior, language understanding and usage. Also it creates conditions for the realization of individuality as Ukrainian languageand other languages, cultures, intellectual and emotional contacts between these languages and cultures.
The report of the International Commission of UNESCO's global strategy of education development of the ХХІ century stated that one of the most important functions of the modern school is to teach people to live together, to help them transform the existing interdependence of states and ethnic groups in conscious solidarity (Report of the UNESCO General Director on the global action plan to achieve the goals of Education for All). The mission of the teacher as a carrier of ethical and aesthetic values of cross-cultural dialogue in multiethnic and multilingual society is special. In conditions of intensive integration process and inter-ethnic contacts education community actually need teachers who are deeply aware of their national roots and honor the cultural traditions of other nations, in facility format of learning activities promote to educate a citizen of the world with planetary vision of a tolerant society. In Poland, Romania, France, Japan pupils and students are offered a range of classes in history, language, geography, exciting excursions to famous historic and cultural monuments in order to preserve original cultural identity, assimilation patterns and values of cultural and historical experiences of different peoples forming the need for intercultural communication, development of tolerance, active social interaction with students from different culture.
A special role in cross-cultural dialogue belongs to the language of experience, knowledge, feelings. “Learning languages is a world history of thoughts and feelings of mankind “...” – persuaded prominent German scholar V. von Humboldt (Гумбольдт, 1984, 349). V. Humboldt`s thesis of the identity of language and the “spirit of the people” was significantly transformed in the concept of Ukrainian scientist O. Potebnya. Agreeing to the fact that the spirit is impossible without language, Slavic and cultural scientist argued: “Accepting….spirit in understanding conscious mental activity that involves concepts that are formed only through words, we see that the spirit is impossible without language, because it is formed through language, and the language in it is the first time an event” (Потебня, 1913, 37). Concept of Potebnya is important for understanding the nature of national and polylanguage and cultural language personality that is important for language education in Ukraine.
The program of the Ukrainian language in high school, especially in specialized philological school provides particular a block “Ukrainian language among other Slavic and non-Slavic languages” which is implemented in the following topics: "Ukrainian language in the “dialogue of cultures”, “Common Slavic traditions and their linguistic expression”, “Ethnic proximity of Slavic peoples”, “Traditions, customs, rituals of residents living near the Ukrainians” (Мацько, Семеног, 2011). To propaedeutic courses, the priority of which are values of culture as a form of human coexistence, cross-cultural dialogue, tolerance, “cooperation” Ukrainian and other languages, referred “Introduction to Slavic Philology”. To professional values of modern teacher an important place take linguistic and cultural knowledge and skills using them in the educational process: to conduct associative links between objects and phenomena in Slavic (non-Slavic) and Ukrainian traditions; to make linguistic and cultural commentary folk and literary texts and discourses; to build a strategy and tactics of intercultural communication in accordance with national psychology. Enriching knowledge of Slavic, Slavic language, Slavonic literature, by information about scientists Slavic promotes universal values and national identity of supranational cross-cultural thought, methods of tolerant behavior language cognition and language use, creates conditions for the realization identity as a Ukrainian language and other languages, cultures, intellectual and emotional contact between languages and cultures.
In article on the course of “Introduction to Slavic Philology” we review the aspects of professional training of future teachers to cross-cultural dialogue.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODS
Analysis of the literature shows: multicultural education today is seen through the prism of the concepts of cultural interaction, intercultural communication, ethnic and cross-cultural psychology (N. Ikonnikov, N. Lebedyeva, S. Ter-Minasova). Cross-cultural (from the English “Crossing Cultures”) scientists examine, in particular, as a comprehensive scientific knowledge of linguistic identity in the multicultural world (Y. Karaulov, L. Krysin, V. Postovalova, L. Sayahova). In the field of Ukrainian (I. Holubovska, P. Hrytsenko, V. Doroz, V. Zhayvoronok, V. Konobrodska, M. Kocherhan, V. Manakin, O. Selivanova, V. Sklyarenko), Russian and Belarusian scientists (V. Vorobyov, V. Kostomarov, B. Fine, V. Maslova, V. Teliya, Ye. Brysina etc.) various aspects of Slavic problem is presented (language situation in Slavic countries Slavic ritual Slav 'Slavic literature), which promotes professional training future teachers to cross-cultural dialogue.
The research methods we used are: theoretical analysis, synthesis, the method of studying educational and historical documents.