The idea of the conceptualization of adult education has been postulated in the article including its significant differences. The leading distinguishing feature is the personality of pedagogical staff that works with adults. It has been substantiated the dependence of the functions which are performed by pedagogical staff in the adult education system, on the main characteristics of the society. It has been shown the content of the integral-role position of a pedagogue-andragogue which has 3 elements: subject and content, project and technological, organization and diagnostic. The professional activity of a pedagogue-andragogue has been analyzed as the specialist who professionally organizes and conducts adult training and learning, helps create individual programs of training. At the same time, in his/her activity he/she combines different social functions as well. The most typical are to provide the help in renovating the motivation towards learning and professional activity, to combine the content both andragogical and professional activity of his/her learners, to share the methods of supervising adult self-learning.
In today’s world, continuous lifelong education is getting more and more significance, adult education being an important part of it. It is adult education that influences the establishment of harmonic relationships between the society and a person.
On the edge of the centuries there is an established recognition that adult education requires substantial conceptualization as in spite of some theories, it has not become the subject of special critical thinking, though it has its own distinguishing features. One of the most important, in our opinion, is the personality of pedagogical staff who works with adults.
The problem of training pedagogical staff to work with adults was paid much attention at the 70s of the last century. At the international conferences they began to raise questions about the necessity to create conditions to train trainers. The recognition of the significance of adult education encouraged the appearance of a separate educational branch of science. Together with it, the problem of training adult teachers demands its attention, particularly teachers-andragogues or pedagogical staff in adult education system (those who work at the establishment where adults receive retraining, upgrading skills, in-house or corporate training, where the third-age people study etc.).
In 1972 according to the statement of UNESCO training the specialists to work with adults should be given the core attention. Later, in UNESCO Recommendations from 1976 it was stated that training the adult trainers should include the knowledge of adult education theory, understanding and personal attitude to the subject and definite professional skills (UNESCO Report, 1976, 18). In general, among the perspective directions of adult education development the priority was given to training adult trainers.
It is due to the following reasons. Firstly, professional training of adult teachers should reflect the established practical skills in teaching adults. Secondly, the principles of training adult trainers should be based on the cooperation with the colleagues, voluntary learning, minimum of exams and credits; easy access; the necessity to change oneself.
Clearly, adult education cannot be neutral. Those who work in this sphere cannot work staying away from the public and economic changes, the society’s needs, labor market demands, etc. They provide knowledge, organize training and encourage to it with the view to social, political, cultural situation and society’s priorities in general and in a definite country, in particular.
Hence, the objective of the study is to identify how the roles adult trainers perform are connected with the society and define their interdependence.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODS
To achieve the established goal, it is critical to make an overview of the literature on the topic and analyze it. That’s why the following research methods are applied:
analysis of the available approaches to the problem in question (generalization, systematization, comparison).
Discussion. Pedagogical staff when working with adults should be open to communication, responsible for the development of a person and for social intrusion. Adult pedagogues should identify and value the educational potential in different social practices (Jaager, 2006).
American researchers substantiate this statement about the dependence of andragogues’ functions on the main characteristics of society development. Thus, they distinguish 5 leading drivers: fast changes in the society, domination of new technologies, diversification of specializations, the complexity of relationships, wide opportunities (Brookfield, 1988, 12).
A teacher-andragogue is a subject of adult learning process the extremely important role in which belongs to the level of his/her professional training. In this sense, the difference in performed functions results in various professional roles which are fixed in the language with the help of new terminology and definitions. For instance, a tutor is the person who assists in fulfilling an individual learning program in the system of upgrading the qualification; a facilitator helps an adult to make his involvement in receiving knowledge easier; a moderator performs the functions of a consultant who helps a group of adults use their inner resources to settle the actual (life and professional) problems.
Consequently, the question arises: who is an andragogue? An andragogue and his/her social role cannot be considered only from the position of the real life requirements, as it is rather the performance of their specific roles which are in the focus and not professionally trained specialists with necessary competences.
We support the opinion of Russian researcher G. Sukhobskaya that an “andragogue” as well as a “pedagogue” are not professions but the generalized name of different informational and educational roles (Сухобская, 2011). If the central position belongs to the learning process, then it is an “educator”. If the spiritual and moral sphere of a person and the forms of the people’s behavior are meant, then it is a “teacher”. If he/she provides consultations to perform self-education, he/she is called a “tutor”, a “consultant”, etc. There are also such functional roles: in-house trainer, coach, master or vocational teacher, trainer moderator, to name a few.
In our opinion, an andragogue is a specialist who professionally arranges adults’ training and learning; provides some consultations; is a co-author of the individual learning programs and at the same time performs various social roles in his/her professional activity. Among them there are to assist in renovating the motivation to learning and professional activity, to know the content of both the andragogical and professional activity of his/her adult learners, and also to be good at providing adequate methods of andragogical support of adults’ self-learning. An anragogue works with adults in all three educational trajectories: formal, non-formal and informal education, “directs” them not only to settling particular tasks but also to critical thinking of the reality, purposeful widening partners’ relations in the civilized society, to the dialogue of values and cultures of the world educational space, to the tolerance and constitutional patriotism.
In short, the roles of adult trainer are defined rather extensively. The majority of the researchers only hints on their characteristics or gives the general information. And different conclusions can be made as for their contents. This results in different terminology in the scientific literature. However, there are quite few researches where the integral-role positions of pedagogue-andragogue are investigated. It can be explained by the fact that in adult education more attention is paid rather to an adult learner than to pedagogical staff.
Let us consider the views to the content of integral-role positions of a pedagogue-andragogue. Following S. Vershlovskiy, an andragogue performs 3 roles: “a doctor-psychotherapist”, who assists in renovating the motivation to the learning and professional activity, decreases the level of learners’ uneasiness; “an expert” who is aware of the contents of learners’ andragogical and professional activities; “a consultant” who is good at applying methods of andragogical help to adult’ self-learning (Вершловский, 2012).
Another approach to pedagogue-andragogue’s roles is described in the researches from Great Britain who underline their interconnection and interdependence: a facilitator, a teacher, a trainer, a guide (Jaager, 2006). According to their theory, the key word for the role of a teacher is “knowledge”. And it means that training and learning organizer is an expert who transfers knowledge, that is he/she is a knowledge mediator. The main task for him/her is to create a friendly learner-oriented learning environment. A guide is associated with the word “an organization”. It means that there is a process of introducing others with new opportunities. The task of this role is to direct adult learners not only to work for receiving the final outcomes, but also to the learning process itself. For the role of “a facilitator” the key item is the attitude. It means that team work is effective and a learning organizer helps everybody to find his/her place and role in the network of relations. A trainer is associated with the word “skills”. It implies that a teaching person can influence the creation of a learner’s personality, forcing him/her and providing with the skills which are necessary for self-realization.
However, the most appealing for us is I. Eesmaa’s approach who is of opinion that a pedagogue plays a few roles for creating friendly environment for adult learning. A pedagogue should be active in his/her social life, a researcher, a learning organizer, a tutor and a consultant. But first of all, a pedagogue is a culture representative (Eesmaa, 2010, 16). In the learning process he/she performs all the roles simultaneously, providing an adequate level of education and a continue self-improvement. Thus, it is required to speak about an integral-role position of a pedagogue-andragogue.
As the literature overview has shown, pedagogical staff performance of different roles in the work with adults reflects his/her activity field and drives him/her to defining the integral-role position. In general, this position has a complex content which is realized through 3 constituent elements:
subject and content (theoretical justification and learning information content selection, which is directed to personal and professional development, creation of conditions for its conscious recognition with the implementation in practice);
project and technological (the selection and structuring the content, forms of common activities, working out the curriculum, technologies of realizing the training programs, individual promotion);
organization and diagnostic (providing subject-subject interactions in the learning process, defining the personal needs, possibilities of adult learner’s development, taking into account his/her individual progress).
Such integral-role position of a specialist, who works in adult education sphere, demands an integration of knowledge as the fundamentals of his/her professional training. In our opinion, the basis for this training is methodological knowledge, psychological and pedagogical knowledge about an adult person, general cultural knowledge and skills, theoretical and technological awareness about active and interactive methods and forms of adult training, methodology, practical and technological knowledge and organizational skills, project knowledge and skills.
So, the professional activity of a pedagogue-andragogue involves training, providing consultations, giving social assistance and performing organizational and managerial functions in adults’ surrounding.
The problem of andragogue’s professional activity is reflected in the works by R. Hiemstra. In his opinion, the effectiveness of an adult educator’s activity depends not only on the level of his/her professional competence, but also on his/her own philosophical positions and personal qualities (Hiemstra, 1994).
To sum up, it should be noted that specialists who offer educational services to adults in Ukraine, in most cases, do not have special andragogical training. It is good if they are the teachers and lecturers of higher schools. But mostly they are people with some pedagogical education but without corresponding vocational specialization or simply actioners without special pedagogical training. Andragogical training of trainers who work in establishments, organizations, companies where the vocational training, retraining, skills upgrading are held, is not practically formed. It has neither juridical nor theoretical or methodic support. Hence, it is necessary to list and fix the functional duties of adult educators in legislative documents including higher school and post-school teachers, consultants, tutors, administrators, managers, social workers etc.
Brookfield, S. (1988). Training Educators of Adults: the Theory and Practice of Graduate Adult. London-New York: Routledge.
Eesmaa, I. (2010). The Adult Educator’s Different Roles. In: The Art of Being an Adult Educator: A Handbook for Adult Educators. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education, Aarhus University.
Hiemstra, R. (1994). Lifelong Education and Personal Growth, еd.by A. Monk. In: The Columbia Retirement Handbook. N. Y.: Columbia University Press.
Jaager, T. (2006). Towards Becoming a Good Adult Educator: Resource Book for Adult Educators. Project “A Good Adult Educator in Europe”, No 114092.
Кукуев, А. И. (2007). АндрагогическаяподготовкапедагоговвсистемевузовскогоипостдипломногообразованиявконтекстестратегииразвитияроссийскогообразованиявХХIвеке[Andragogical training of teachers in the system of higher and post-graduate education in the context of the strategy of development of Russian education in the twenty-first century]. In: Е. В. Бондаревская (Ed). Методологическая сфера образования: современные научные подходы. Монография [Methodological sphere of education: modern scientific approaches. Monograph]. Ростов-на-Дону: «Булат». p. 349–407 (In Russian).
Сухобская, Г. С., Шадрина, Т. В. (2011). Андрагогическая направленность профессионально-педагогического образования [Andragogical orientation of vocational teacher education]. Retrieved on 02.06.2014 from: http://ext.spb.ru/2011-03-29-09-03-14/108-custom-personalization-edu/858-2011-12-12-22-42-54.html (In Russian).
UNESCO Report in the 19th General Session Conference. (1976). Nairobi.
Вершловский, С. (2012). ОбразованиевзрослыхвРоссии: вопросытеории [Adult Education in Russia: Theoretical issues]. Retrieved on 12.05.2014 from:
http://www.znanie.org/docs/Vershl.htm. (In Russian)
Змеев, С. И. (1999). Андрагогика: теоретическиеосновыобучениявзрослых [Andragogy: the theoretical foundations of adult education]. М.: ПЕР СЭ, 2007 (In Russian).
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Full Professor, LILIYASUSHENTSEVA
SHSE “Kryvyi Rih National University”, MES Ukraine,
PREPAREDNESS FORMATION OF THE FUTURE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION TEACHERS TO OCCUPATIONAL ADAPTATION UNDER CONDITIONS
OF GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES ABSTRACT
The problem of the preparedness formation of future teachers of vocational training to the professional adaptation under conditions of globalization processes in society is considered. The analysis of scientific and educational literature devoted to the study of occupational adaptation and preparedness formation of specialists to it is carried out. Different approaches to the interpretation of the term “adaptation” of the various sciences positions as in in our country and foreign scientific literature are analyzed. It is determined that the professional adaptation is the process of joining a young vocational education teacher in a new social environment in the system of interpersonal relations of particular staff, during which it is taking place the standards of thinking and behavior production in terms of values system and behavioral norms of the staff; readiness for occupational adaptation as one of the essential parameters of professional and social maturity of a person is the particular bound, which characterizes the internal readiness of a man to the qualitative changes.
Keywords:readiness formation, globalization, vocational education teacher, professional adaptation. INTRODUCTION
The global crisis of civilization on the beginning of XXI century, covering education sector, showed up in human fragmented vision of reality that in a post-industrial information society birth makes people unable to respond adequately to the worsening energy crisis, the devaluation of moral norms and intellectual values, kaleidoscopic technological changes, the instability of the political situation. There is no doubt that from the standpoint of humanization of society and education, focus on man, fundamental values, strong democratization of education is an issue that should be considered in another way: the personality of the specialist will require greater requirements to the production, including to skills work, its intellectual and creative content. Moreover, these requirements will steadily increase as the increase of general and vocational education rights. Today, under the avalanche of information, we suffer from the inability to capture the complexity of the problems, understand relationships and interactions between things that are in different areas in our segmented consciousness (Гончаренко, 2005). This view of the famous Ukrainian scientist S. Goncharenko is proof that for now there is an objective need for training vocational education teachers of a new type.
THE AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to examine the issues of training of the future vocational training teachers’ readiness to the professional adaptation under conditions of globalization processes in society.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODS
It is well known that the crucial role in training and production process of vocational school is played by teachers in special and general technical subjects and a vocational training masters (further, the teachers of vocational training), because they organize cognitive activity. Systematically organized activities of vocational training teacher and students directed to provide students mastering professional knowledge, skills, and abilities to analyze their own production situation and find ways to solve them, and the development of mental and physical abilities of students. According to O. E. Kovalenko, “extremely important is the analysis problem of the engineer-teacher, the selection of his professionally important qualities needed for the job, determines the methods of their formation during the getting of basic education in higher education and in-service training” (Коваленко, 1999). The development of manufacturing, ICT, engineering, transient conditions of life in the information society, scientific knowledge that constantly updated requires from vocational learning teacher mobile response abilities in their professional activities to the ever changing needs of society. At the same time, new technologies, continuing innovation processes in education, the adoption to competence-based approach, the need for the formation of mobile skilled workforce – all of which also requires from vocational training teachers mobility and readiness to work under constant change. Indeed, today’s dynamic society needs teacher, open to everything new that can rapidly adapt to the complex environment of professional and social reality, independently and responsibly make decisions focused on success and continuous improvement. Therefore, commitment to professional adaptation as one of the essential parameters of professional and social maturity of the person is the utmost bound, which characterizes the internal readiness of man to qualitative changes.
The phenomenon of adaptation has been studied by many authors (V. Aschepkov, M. Bordukov, L. Yehorova, L. Zemtsova, I. Zymna, I. Kalaykov, P. Kuznetsov, A. Markova, H. Medvedev, L. Miloslavova, L. Mitina, A. Moroz, D. Olshanskiy, V. Petrovskyy, N. Shamray, etc.) from different perspectives.
In the foreign literature adaptation is seen as a form of protective human adaptation to social demands (Delor, 1966); mastering social roles (Parson); overcoming stress (Hodakov, 1978); the way out of a stressful situation (Selye, 1960); a set of adaptive responses, which are based on active coping with environment, changing and creating the necessary conditions for the successful activity (Shibutani, 1969).
According to the meaning of different researchers the number of adapting types differ significaly: H. Medvedev identifies two types of specialist adaptation: social and professional (Medvedev, Rubin, Kolesnikov, 1969); L. Ehorova – three types: social, vocational, social and psychological (Egorova, 1983); D. Olshanskyy identifies four of them: social, psychological, biological and physiological (Olshansky, 1994); P. Kuznetsov – economical, domestic, regulatory, sexual, communicative, cognitive (Kuznetsov P. S., 1991); A. Moroz examines eight types of adaptation for a young teacher: professional, social, psychological, social, legal, political, physiological, domestic, climatographical (Frost, 1983, 1990);
V. Aschepkov provides psychological, social, didactic, technical, scientific, specific, educational, biological, physiological, economic, domestic, political, legal, ethnic, climatographical types of adaptation skills for an entry-level teacher of high school (Aschepkov, 1997, 1998).
Adaptation as a process and adaptability as the property of the individual is inseparably linked with information processes occurring today in nature, society, technosphere. Adaptation is only possible in a complex self-organizing open system that exchange information with the external environment. Our society has entered a post-industrial era of development, characterized by an exponentially increasing flow of information, rapid quantitative and qualitative formation of the noosphere. Under these conditions, more than ever-important process of human adaptation in society, careers, personal life.
The research methods we used are: theoretical analysis, synthesis, the method of studying educational and historical documents.