Національна академія педагогічних наук України Інститут педагогічної освіти і освіти дорослих

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(in Ukrainian).

10. Cайт Франкфуртського університету імені Гьоте [The site of the Frankfurt university is named after Goete ]. Retrieved 23.09.2013 from: (in German).

DOI: 10.2478/rpp-2014-0042
Postgraduate student, IANA PROSKURKINA

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

Address: 20 Lunacharskogo str., app. 27, Kyiv, Ukraine

E-mail: yana_i_pr@ukr.net




The growing number of foreign applicants looking forward to getting education in Ukrainian medical universities makes us find the ways how to improve and make effective the pre-professional training system of foreign medical applicants for further education. The article deals with the issues of the history of formation and development of the pre-professional training system of foreign medical applicants in Ukraine. On the ground of the electronic databases of the official websites of higher educational establishments, the data on years of opening first offices of the dean, departments and preparatory faculties for foreign medical applicants in Ukrainian medical universities are analyzed and systematized. Also the data on the setting up preparatory faculties at other universities who carry out licensed training of foreign students of the medical profile are presented. The data on the operating and management of such institutions in the system of the University administration are generalized. It’s revealed that during the years of its functioning the pre-professional training has changed, in particular the system was commercialized and the institutions involved in training foreign applicants have been reorganized. The modern trends in teaching foreign medical students at the preparatory faculties of the Ukrainian medical universities are displayed. Based on the analysis of the data it is concluded that the system of the pre-professional training of foreign medical applicants was set up in the 50s-60s years of the twentieth century. During this time, some positive experience in the preparation of future international medical specialists has been gained. The system of the pre-professional training of foreign medical applicants has been comprehensively improved and an effective system of managing foreign medical applicants has been created.

Key words: foreign students, foreign applicants history, medical profile, medical universities, preparatory departments, pre-professional, training.

The integration of Ukraine into the world educational space strengthens responsibility for training foreign students who come to study in our country. According to the statistics the foreign citizens who get education in medical universities, are one third of the total number of all foreign students (Лазоришинець, 2008). Traditionally, preparing foreigners for admission to Ukrainian medical universities starts from the pre-professional training at the preparatory departments. The need to improve the system of the foreign medical specialists training requires studying the experience of formation and development of the pre-professional training system of such specialists.


The aim of this article is to analyze the experience of formation and development of the pre-professional training system of foreign medical students in Ukraine.


Some questions of formation and development of the pre-professional training system of the foreign students are presented mainly by the publications by V. Hrutsyak (Груцяк, 2008), I. Khristenko (Христенко, 2010) and J. Fedotova (Федотова, 2009). The thesis work by L. Rybachenko (Рибаченко, 2001), in which the author thoroughly analyzed the experience of training of foreign students in Ukrainian universities for the period since 1946 until 2000, is especially important for our study. In her work the author defined both the negative and positive experience of such training and the ways of reforming the training system of foreign specialists. However, the historical aspect of the preparation of foreign medical students hasn’t been studied yet. In this regard, it seems necessary to analyze the process of formation and development of the pre-professional training of foreign medical applicants.

The research methods we used are: theoretical analysis, synthesis, the method of studying educational and historical documents.


According to the statistics of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine and electronic databases of the universities, today in Ukraine 15 medical universities and academies prepare doctors and pharmacists for different foreign countries.

The systematic training of foreign medical students started in the 50s of the 20th century when the Soviet Union established friendly relations with other countries and provided them with the financial, technical and scientific assistance. Foreigners from Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Mongolia and other countries began to arrive to the Soviet republics, including Ukraine.

Thus, the training of foreign specialists at medical universities started in 1946 at Odessa Medical University, in 1951 − at Kharkiv National Medical University, in 1956 – at Bohomolets National Medical University, in 1958 – at M. Gorky Donetsk Medical Institute (now Donetsk National Medical University). Kharkiv Pharmaceutical Institute (now National University of Pharmacy) began educating foreigners on “Pharmacy” speciality in 1959. In 1961, foreign students started in Crimea State Medical University named after S. I. Georgievsky and in Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, in 1978 – in National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya.

The increasing number of foreign students and entarants in Ukraine in the 60s years of the 20th century, their diversity and multilingualism raised the questions of setting up special institutions to work with them. In different universities such institutions became offices of the dean of foreign student affairs, later preparatory faculties and departments. In 1964 the Office of the Dean of Foreign Student Affairs was set up at Odessa Medical University and Kharkiv National Medical University, in 1966 – in Crimea State Medical University named after S. I. Georgievsky.

In 1967 “Regulations on preparatory faculty for foreign citizens” by Ministry of Education of the USSR No 231 from 04.18.1967 was adopted. According to the regulations, preparatory departments were recognized as the units of higher educational establishments and their activities were subordinated to USSR Ministry of Higher Education. The tasks of preparatory faculties were to prepare foreign students for further study according to the speciality they chose (Христенко, 2010).

The first preparatory faculty specialized in medicine and biology in Ukraine was set up in 1973 in Zaporozhye State Medical University. In 1974 in Kharkov Pharmaceutical Institute (now National University of Pharmacy), the Faculty of Foreign Student Affairs was founded. Later in 1979 the Preparatory Faculty for foreign citizens was open in National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya.

To optimize the scientific, technical and educational work on the preparation of foreign students, some faculties established language departments. In particular, in 1964 the Language Training Department for foreign students learning Russian was established at Kharkiv National Medical University, in 1969 – the Department of Russian Language at Odessa Medical University, in 1974 – the Department of Russian Language at M. Gorky Donetsk State Medical Institute, the Department of Russian Language and of General Training Courses for foreign students – at Zaporozhye State Medical University.

After the collapse of the USSR the number of foreign students taking up places at Ukrainian universities decreased rapidly and the state support of the preparatory faculties for foreign citizens ended. Nevertheless the tradition of training foreign students has been saved. The system of foreign specialists’ training was commercialized. It became the way of integration into the world educational space and, of course, contributed to the financial interests of the Ukrainian universities. There were changes in the format of training foreign students. Studying at preparatory faculties wasn’t considered as initial training anymore but pre-professional one. Some offices involved in preparing foreign students to study at universities were reorganized. Thus, in 1992 the Office of the Dean of Foreign Student Affairs at Odessa Medical University was displaced by the Preparatory Department for foreign citizens. In the same year, the Faculties of Training Foreign Students were organized at Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy and Bohomolets National Medical University. In 1994 International Medical Faculties were opened at M. Gorky Donetsk National Medical University and Crimea State Medical University named after S. Georgievsky. The Preparatory Department for foreign citizens at I. Gorbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University functioned until 1992. Its work was updated in 1997. Danylo Halitsky Lviv National Medical University opened the International Department and Faculty of Foreign Students and Kharkiv National Medical University set up the Preparatory Department for foreign students. In 2008, the Preparatory Department for foreign citizens at Lugansk State Medical University was reorganized into an independent unit of the university and was subordinated to the Office of Dean of Foreign Students Affairs. Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University began to accept foreign students in 1992, and in 2003 opened the Preparatory Department.

It should be noted that preparatory faculties and departments that carry out licensed training of foreign students on different profiles (medical, engineering, economic, humanitarian, etc.) for admission to higher educational establishments work at other universities, too. The most popular universities and faculties among foreign students are:

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, the Preparatory Faculty of which has a very long tradition. Training foreigners at this Preparatory Faculty started from 1960;

National Aviation University in Kiev, which started training aviation specialists for foreign countries in 1949, and in 1959 the Department of Foreign Students’ Affairs at Mechanical Faculty was established. Later it was reorganized into the Office of the Dean of Foreign Students Affairs. In 1977 the Preparatory Faculty for foreign citizens was opened here (at that time the university was called Kiev Institute of Civil Aviation). Ten years later this faculty was voted one of the ten best in the Soviet Union. At present, the training at the faculty is carried out in different areas, including medical and biological;

National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” began training of foreign specialists in 1946. Until 1996 the Office of the Dean of Foreign Students Affairs was responsible for organization of work with foreign students. In 1996 the Center for foreign citizens which coordinated all the work related to foreign students was set up. In 2009, in connection with the expansion of tasks and directions of the university work the Faculty of International Education was established;

V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. The training of foreign specialists on different profiles at this university began in 1948, and in 1961 the University opened one of the first in the country Preparatory Faculty for Foreign Citizens.

The long experience of the preparatory faculties showed their effectiveness.

Among the universities, which are currently engaged in medical training of foreign specialists, the leading universities are Lugansk Medical University, Bohomolets National Medical University, Crimea State Medical University named after S. I. Georgievsky, Zaporozhye Medical University, Odessa State Medical University, National University of Pharmacy, National Pirogov Memorial Medical University and P. I. Shupik National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education (Лазоришинець, 2008). Most of the universities started an innovative English form of the educational process which become more and more popular in all medical universities and academies.


Thus, the system of the pre-professional training of foreign medical applicants in Ukraine started to form in the 50s–60s years of the 20th century. Its formation and development was difficult. During this time, Ukrainian universities have gained some experience in the organization of the pre-professional training and teaching foreign medical students that allows Ukraine to compete on the international education market.

Prospects for further research. Further progress needed on developing new methods of teaching foreign students medical profile.

  1. Вища медична освіта [Higher Medical Education]. Retrieved 16.12.2013 from: <http://www.moz.gov.ua/ua/portal/hi_med_studies.html> (in Ukrainian).

  2. Груцяк, В. І. (2008). Становлення системи підготовки іноземних громадян у Харківському університеті [Formation the system of training foreign citiziens at Kharkiv University]. Вестник ХНУ. No 13. p. 18–26. Retrieved 05.10.2013 from: http://www-center.univer.kharkov.ua/vestnik/full/41.pdf (in Ukrainian).

  3. Лазоришинець, В. В., Банчук М. В., Волосовець О. П., Фещенко І. І. (2008) Вища медична освіта України на сучасному етапі [Today’s Higher Medical Education in Ukraine]. Проблеми сучасної освіти та науки. No 4. p. 5–10 (in Ukrainian).

  4. Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Retrieved 06.01.2013 from: <http://www.moz.gov. ua/ua/portal/hi_med_studies.html appeal date> (in Ukrainian).

  5. Рибаченко, Л. І. (2001). Підготовка іноземних студентів у навчальних закладах України (1946-2000рp.) [Training foreign students in the educational institutions of Ukraine (1946–2000 years.)]. Aвтореф. дис. на здобуття наук. ступеня канд. пед. наук: спец. 13.00.01 «Загальна педагогіка та історія педагогіки». Lugansk, 20 p. (in Ukrainian).

  6. Христенко, І. О. (2010). Історико-педагогічний аспект підготовки іноземних громадян у вищих навчальних закладах України [Historical and pedagogical aspects of foreign nationals in the higher educational institutions of Ukraine]. Педагогічна наука: історія, теорія, практика, тенденції розвитку. No 3. Retrieved 10.05.2013 from: <http://www. intellect- invest. org.ua/pedagog_editions_e-magazine_pedagogical_science_vypuski_n3_2010_st_17/> (in Ukrainian).

  7. Федотова, Ю. В. (2009). Підготовка іноземних громадян у вищій школі України: історико-педагогічний аспект [Training foreign citizens in high school of Ukraine: historical and pedagogical aspects]. Наука і освіта : Науково-практичний журнал Південного наукового Центру АПН України. No 7. – p. 215–218 (in Ukrainian).

DOI: 10.2478/rpp-2014-0044

Graduate student, ARTEM SUSHENTSEV

Khmelnytskyi national university

Address: 57 microdistrict Sonyachnyi, apt. 56,

Kryvyi Rih, 50027, Ukraine

E-mail: caserta@mail.ru


The importance of professional development of labour force directly in the workplace has been proved. It’s revealed that this is due not only to questions of advanced training, but also to the improvement of the situation on the labor market of unskilled groups of citizen. The current labor market recognizes the value and importance of people. Along with this a key and fundamental is stability and predictability in the workplace. It is proved that in the center of each production system are people and their collective beliefs and behavior of production culture. An important point here has their adaptation to the new and conditions of work. The requirements of the labor market to the production staff in terms of different employers have been defined. It is revealed that the professional development of labour force according to labor market requirements is not isolated events, but the use of various programs (including program TWI “J”), continuous implementation of “lean tools”, vehicles, methods, ways of staff thinking.

Key words: labor market, technological requirements, professional development, labour force, the USA, adaptation.

Foreign firms provided great value to professional improvement of production staff. It is a part of the general system of staff management, which includes not only their training and advanced training, but the selection, certification, promotions and stimulation. The policy of the United States labor market in the context of lifelong learning are becoming more common following areas of training for the labor market as training, retraining and achieve a higher educational level. It should be noted that while investments in education and training according to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) is a joint responsibility of the state and the private sector, investment in lifelong learning in the workplace and education that enhances employability and competitiveness of enterprises is companies liability and citizens (Олейникова, Муравьева, Аксенова, 2009, 11).

Economic growth in the United States has long been associated with the development of mass production, where all decisions are taken at the “top of the pyramid”, based on which the workers were not expected any “effort of the mind” and how to carry out their professional functions well enough education at the level of basic literacy and minimum practical training. Naturally, over time the situation seems to be changing skills requirements of workers began to rise, but the gap between the demand for skilled specialists and the supply of such specialists was increasing rapidly (Кананыкина, 2013).


The aim of the study is to outline the requirements of the labor market to the professional development of labour force in the United States.


The major direction of improving the system of framing is to coordinate the planning and management of production staff with the strategy of economic activities, increase its efficiency as a whole. To relay on facts that modern society / economy based on knowledge, involving the transfer of emphasis on the processes and practices that are based on the production, distribution and use of knowledge transfer “center of gravity” for intangible goods and services, which include digital and biotechnology, tourism , information and communication technology, financial services, etc., the production does not lose its importance and increasingly have to depend on the starting competences in digital design, ICT, computer control systems. Moreover, new technologies are changing rapidly and require complex knowledge, skills and competencies, including – personal and interpersonal skills, and responsibility for planning work processes, including quality (Олейникова, Муравьева, Аксенова, 2009, 11, 19). Undoubtedly, improving production staff directly on connected not only with the issues of training, but also to the improvement of the situation on the labor market of unskilled groups of citizen.

According to scientists’ research (B. Vulfson, P. Hraupp, V. Zmeyev, A. Kananykina, W. Miller, E. Oleinikova, A. Robinson etc.) supported by the central and especially local governments in the United States of America is actively developing the system of training of labour force and non-formal education. It has a huge variety of shapes and flexibility, a high degree of adaptability to individual needs and interests, advanced technical tools, information and computing and so on. However, A. Robinson (Alan G. Robinson) and D. Schroder (Dean M. Schroeder) note that in the center of each production system are people and their collective beliefs and behavior of industrial culture. You can have all the technology, machines, processes and systems, but to make it all work in the center of all this we must put people. The current labor market recognizes the value and importance of people. Along with this a key and fundamental is stability and predictability in the workplace (Robinson, 1993).

Creating jobs and improving their quality are key conditions. Economic growth is the first condition for the creation of new jobs. However, economic growth has little effect on the inclusion of an array of formal employment of people working in the sector with a high level of informality. Thus, even when people with low skills reach a higher skill level, they are in a state of involvement in micro company or are as self-employed. Therefore, it is necessary to create conditions for the development in the informal sector of companies so that people can live in dignity through their work and help informal companies to join the formal economy. However, the research shows that the development of education and training leads to an increase in labor productivity by 5% per year in the short run and by 2.5 % in the long run. High level of education means a high standard of living, social inclusion and employment, and an active citizenship. This, in turn, reaffirms the necessity of lifelong learning accessible to all citizens, including the professional development of labour force at work.

The research methods we used are: theoretical analysis, synthesis, the method of studying educational and historical documents.


The current labor market in the United States imposes certain requirements for professional development personnel. Among the approaches based on the theory of human capital, an important place is adapting to the new technological requirements and conditions of work. In-service training in the production are strict economic criteria, they are guided by the ultimate bottom line is performed carefully monitored and evaluated effectiveness required for each program. Professional development is carried out in two basic forms – training (skills training) and development of employees. It should be noted that difficulties in the future of work practice, where about 40 % of jobs are informal, necessitates immediate training of labour force to the problem and its all-round development. In the last decade of American Scientists there are considerable discussion about the concept of “competence” and standardization of training personnel. Therefore it is necessary to determine the uniqueness of interpretations of these concepts.

Vocational education and training can contribute to the social integration of unemployed young people without qualifications, but in the broader framework of the development, creation of decent jobs and the expansion of education. It's no secret that some of these groups have limited capacity in terms of physical and intellectual capacities. On the one hand, companies need skilled workers, on the other hand – “they are looking for honest, responsible, reliable, loyal, motivated, organized and mature” (Bastien, 2006).

American employers spend millions of man-hours annually to advertise on the pre-selection and interview candidates for the vacancy in engineering enterprises, hiring and training personnel. Monitoring of the interviews showed that many potential employees who are hired by employers to the appropriate trial period, hoping to not only work in one place, but also be able to professional development and career growth. Employers like to hire a worker who does not aspire to career and would like to cultivate at the workplace. Such labor, in their opinion, will cost much cheaper than hiring, prepare and support new workers. The solution they found in hiring experienced skilled workforce older. According to employers, there are 12 reasons for hiring production labour force:

1. Qualified older workers work more efficiently, resulting in significant cost savings for the company.

2. Punctuality. Most of them are looking forward to going to work every day. They probably come to work an hour before it started.

3. Honesty is common among older workers, which is very important to group work and dedication.

4. They are more rigorous, focused on quality performance in the smallest detail, focused, attentive, focused on little additional cost, which in turn provides the employer savings, and even maintaining a business.

5. Older workers are good listeners because they are easier to teach. Labour force older enough to say once to performed some work.

6. Pride for well-done job is becoming rarer phenomenon among younger production staff. Young workers want to invest in appropriate working hours, while older workers are more willing to stay after work and do the job because they have self-esteem for the results.

7. Organizational skills among older workers noteworthy employers more than a million person-hours are lost each year because of disruption in the workplace.

8. Performance and confidence, the ability to share their experiences of older workers do them great labour force. Their many years of experience in the same workplace gives them an excellent understanding of how the workplace can be the most effective, saving you money enterprise. Their belief is formed over the years means that they cannot hesitate to share your ideas with management.

9. Maturity comes with age and experience, and forms of workers who receive less comment when you have problems.

10. Older employees are an example to other employees that work may have intangible value. They are excellent mentors and role models, providing training other employees at the workplace.

11. Communication skills are the knowledge when and how to communicate and develop because of years of experience. Older workers understand workplace policies and know how diplomatically submit their ideas to manager.

12. Reducing labor costs is a huge advantage when hiring older workers. Older workers already have insurance plans from previous employers. Alternatively, have an additional source of income and are willing to do the job at a lower cost. They understand that their work in the company can be much more useful than the salary they receive. Hiring older workers prevents the outflow of labor (Bastien, 2006).

Thus, consideration of these benefits by employers when hiring labour force provides a number of benefits for the company, including engineering.

According to P. Graupp (P. Graupp), despite all the emphasis on the process, methods and tools most aspect of the labor market is an employee who perform work (Graupp, 2010). Without it, it is impossible to make the necessary improvements in the production and manufacture competitive products. If you do not use new methods to improve and not traditional, it is, unlikely that we will achieve the required level of quality and organization of work, and it is possible to achieve only a constant improvement of personnel.

Alan Robinson in an interview that appeared in 1993 in the California Journal of Management “Training, continuous improvement and human relations” (Training, Continuous Improvement, and Human Relations, California Management Review, Winter 1993) opened its innovative research under the “Training of personnel in production” (TWI), where he focuses pays “concept of humanism in manufacturing”. According to P. Graupp, if the employee had not learned to do their work efficiently, it provides no basis to say that he is unqualified, which means that the instructor did not teach, and that is a problem (Graupp, 2010). This problem exists in both small and large companies. One solution to this problem is to maintain good relations between employees and creating a unified team. The enterprise should not look at people as on machinery. They should pay attention to the human factor during training, giving multilevel tasks that require some practice to improve employee skills.

At present in the United States there are three basic organizational and financial mechanisms are divided during the preparation for professional careers; by regular training based on traditional vocational schools (VTI's), which have a three-way control (trade unions, employers, government); vocational schools under the Ministry of Education; other studies on specific programs, which depend on the Ministry of Labour and other social organisms that delegate learning various institutional agents (most of which are private non-profit organizations or private schools). The functions of the latter part of the adoption program competitive “open market” model schools that are selected on a competitive basis; development programs provide subsidies for organizations working with vulnerable groups.

In addition to regular vocational education and training, many of the programs and policy initiatives deal specifically vulnerable groups in the region. Some were successful and showed an interesting strategy. However, they were mostly dependent on correct training systems. Many of them were of poor quality and had weak links to the labor market. Initiatives have reached only a small part of the population. In addition to further studies conducted by some VTI's, had an impact study conducted by the International Cooperation (IC). The downside is the lack of systematic evaluation of actions VT. Some VTI's professional schools are oriented courses of high quality and in demand, but at the community level, there are those that provide lower quality vocational education and have fewer resources and are aimed at informal working poor performance. However, they are, despite the poor quality of training and poor communication with other stages and do not contribute to lifelong learning, still provide some useful skills for their future working life. With regard to approaches to learning, including traditional learning tend to perform specific technical courses with independent short-term programs. The diversity between training centers is huge – from well-stocked public or private training centers to simple rooms in community centers. Instructors are also very different profiles, depending on institutional structures. The most common disadvantage among technical teachers and instructors is the lack of teacher training and / or updated technical skills.

Art Smalley is currently a consultant to the Institute Lean Enterprise (LEI), and a former employee of Toyota Motor Corp. (Japan) said the following. Basis stability begins with well-trained workforce. Fortunately, the staff tends to know their jobs or we all would have serious problems. However, Toyota in 1950, explored some of the basic methods of supervision of production and how to improve their further skills and capabilities working groups. In particular, they have an industrial training program that the United States used during the Second World War, entitled Education in Industry (TWI). It had three separate components vocational training production managers – work instructions, methods of work and work relations. Each component is a ten-course that teaches practical skills surveillance (TWI, 2014). These three components TWI “J” Courses (work relations, work instructions and working methods) provide an important basis for teamwork in a simple program that will be supported. In TWI "behavior" plays a powerful role in improving the forming of the company and ensures the stability and predictability in their work.

Consider the three fundamental concepts of the program TWI “J” is respect for individuals, standard work, continuous improvement. Respect for people and working relationships are fundamental in any successful production areas where productivity is high and continuously improved. The manager must be able to train effectively production staff who in return will respect it. If an employee believes that he is being shown the best way to do the job and will do it in their own way, then there will be a change in performance due to changes in the method. In this case, there will be stability and predictability. The same can be said about continuous improvement. Without respect for people in the workplace will not be resistant to change (improvement) in the long run because workers do not believe they are now entering the “best new way”. You cannot go out and tell someone to “respect the people”. Respect is earned, and is the result of made work and teaches the manager for four basic good terms, that is – these are things that have to do every day that will promote good relations. Standard paper describes how a process or activity must be made (in order to get the “desired result”). Standard work will determine the most effective method currently known to get the desired result by using existing equipment, people and materials.

Moreover, Art Smalley defines “building” blocks production as “4MS” – work force, machines, materials and methods. He believes that to improve workforce “core stability begins with a well-trained workforce”. A well-trained workforce is a workforce that follows standard work. To train the workforce of used Manual (JI), which provides a proven method for manager training labour force and ensures adherence to standard work. Manual of head teaches two things: how to prepare instruct others perform production tasks, spending industrial instruction and testing performance.

Continuous improvement is not unusual measures to implement “lean tools”. It requires implementation of “lean tools”, vehicles, methods, and ways of thinking for the head of the working area. Method of TWI (JM) is a practical method that ensures the production of more quality products in less time and make more effective use of manpower, machines and materials available. This method does not involve additional expenditure for better performance.

Finally, we note that in the development of intra-study abroad plays an important role close relationship between the level of education, occupational status and quality of life of the employee. In the United States, on average, the base and employment training determine almost half of the change in the earnings of each employee. Study on the production of a significant impact on wages. Individuals who received such education, income increases by about 25 %, not to mention the possibility of promotion and work more profitable. Moreover, the impact of this factor is longer. Thus, if the effect of schooling is felt for 8 years, learning on the job place – for 13 years (Минервин, 2005, 82).

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