Party candidate Boris Johnson, ahead of Labour's Ken Livingstone. Well- known for his wild blonde hair, his self-deprecating humour and his reputation for gaffes and blunders, Mr Johnson has been a colourful figure in British politics for many years. While few doubted his energy and charisma, Boris Johnson's narrow victory has surprised his critics, who questioned whether he was a serious enough politician to win.
87 His remarks have often caused controversy, such as when in 2006 he had to apologise to the entire country of Papua New Guinea after suggesting it was known for "cannibalism". In the same year his criticism of a healthy eating campaign also made headlines, when he said parents should be able to feed children what they like, healthy or not. But bumbling Boris has always had an ambitious streak; when he was asked as a child what he wanted to be when he grew up, he said "the world king". He now replaces Ken Livingstone, who had been London's mayor since 2000. Left-wing 'Red Ken' will be remembered for his role in helping London win the 2012 Olympic Games, as well as his introduction of the congestion charge, which is widely thought to have reduced traffic in the capital. So will Boris Johnson's victory mean a change of direction for London over the next four years? He promises to be tough on crime and anti-social behaviour, and to work to help to bring together Londoners of different ethnic backgrounds. Whatever happens, given Boris Johnson's colourful past, it is unlikely that the next four years will be dull. Vocabulary and definitions: self-deprecating humour when someone speaks in a funny manner that shows they are not too serious and slightly critical about themselves gaffes and blunders clumsy social mistakes or breaches of etiquette (e.g. insensitive remarks); being impolite colourful figure someone who is exciting, amusing and often unpredictable charisma great charm and/or ability to inspire others narrow victory the number of people who voted for him was not muchgreater than of those who voted for other candidates caused controversy become the reason for strong disagreement/clash of opinions cannibalism when a human being eats another human being made headlines was reported by the media as important bumbling acting as if confused
88 ambitious streak determination to achieve success, even if it only shows occasionally and contrasts with his other characteristics congestion charge here, money that you pay for driving your car in Central London on weekdays tough on crime firmly fighting and punishing illegal behaviour Obama’s Brain Project US President Barack Obama has launched a $100m project to map the "enormous mystery" of the human brain. He hopes the BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) project will help us understand how the brain works and learn more about diseases such as Alzheimer's. The president's advisors call the BRAIN project ambitious, even audacious. It aims to produce dynamic pictures of the brain that show, in the words of a White House statement, how individual cells and complex neural circuits interact at the speed of thought. Announcing the programme, Barack Obama said humans could identify distant galaxies and study subatomic particles, but still had a limited understanding of the brain. Barack Obama: "There's this enormous mystery waiting to be unlocked. The BRAIN Initiative will change that by giving scientists the tools they need to get a dynamic picture of the brain in action and better understand how we think and how we learn and how we remember." That knowledge, he said, would be transformative: families no longer helpless at the onset of Parkinson's, and war veterans able to reverse the effects of traumatic brain injury. The administration reckons it costs around $500bn a year to treat the various conditions this project hopes to address. It believes that technological advances, in data processing and revolutionary new techniques like optogenetics mean that, for the first time, this hugely ambitious research is actually possible. Vocabulary and definitions: audacious showing extreme confidence and willingness to take risks and offend people
89 neural circuits a system of connected neurons: cells that send and receive messages to and from the brain subatomic particles extremely small pieces of matter that are smaller than atoms or forming part of atoms initiative a project designed to achieve something or solve a problem transformative causing significant changes or improvement in a situation onset the beginning of something, especially something unpleasant or bad war veterans people who fought in the armed forces during a war traumatic causing severe shock, upset, or emotional distress address deal with optogenetics the use of optics (the study of light) and genetics (the study of how features and behaviour of living things are passed on through genes) to control things that happen in cells Universities in the UK Universities in Britain are a magnet for overseas students. There are currently over 200,000 from outside Britain studying at British universities. The largest single group is Chinese students. There are currently 50,000 in the UK. The British government expects the total number of overseas students to be around 900,000 by 2020, and also thinks that a quarter of these will be Chinese. But why is the UK such a popular destination for university students? Well, the quality of your course is guaranteed. All courses are assessed by an independent system, so you can be assured that your course is officially approved and has wide international recognition. The British education system is very flexible in order to provide for the needs of a modern, complex society. It is also cost-effective. Degree courses are usually shorter and more intensive than in other countries. There are lots of scholarships available. You normally need 3 A-levels, which are the exams taken by people leaving school at 18, in order to enter an undergraduate degree course. You also need an IELTS score of at least 5.5, but many universities offer foundation or access courses to prepare
90 students for their studies. British universities offer a personalised but independent approach. The emphasis is on creative and independent thought, which helps develop the skills you will need to compete in the global job market. Tutors not only teach but also provide support and guidance. As a result, international students have a very low drop out rate and a very high pass rate. It is very simple to become an international student in the UK. The British Council offers a free and impartial service to anyone who is interested in studying in the UK, and an organisation called UCAS assists you in finding a course and making an effective application. The UK is a dynamic and cosmopolitan place. The countryside is beautiful, and the theatres, museums, architecture and rich history make it a fascinating place to live and study. Why not give it a go? Vocabulary and definitions: overseas coming from abroad, foreign assessed evaluated, ranked recognition - accepting that something (e.g. a course) is of high quality cost-effective provides good education for not too much money IELTS short for International English Language Testing System. It measures ability to communicate in English across all four language skills: listening, reading, writing and speaking foundation here, basic, preparatory personalised focused on individual students guidance help and direction drop out when you have to stop your university studies before you have completed your course pass rate marks that you need to get in order to begin/continue to study at a university impartial fair, unbiased dynamic - where a lot happens and changes happen quite often Freshers’ Week The UK has a well-respected higher education system and some of the top universities and research institutions in the world. But to those who are new to it all, it can be overwhelming and sometimes confusing.
91 October is usually the busiest month in the academic calendar. Universities have something called Freshers’ Week for their newcomers. It’s a great opportunity to make new friends, join lots of clubs and settle into university life. However, having just left the comfort of home and all your friends behind, the prospect of meeting lots of strangers in big halls can be nerve-wracking. Where do you start? Who should you make friends with? Which clubs should you join? Luckily, there will be thousands of others in the same boat as you worrying about starting theiruniversity social life on the right foot. So just take it all in slowly. Don’t rush into anything that you’ll regret for the next three years. Here are some top tips from past students on how to survive Freshers’ Week: - blend in. Make sure you are aware of British social etiquette. Have a few wine glasses and snacks handy for your housemates and friends; - be hospitable. Sometimes cups of tea or even slices of toast can give you a head start in making friends; - be sociable. The more active you are, the more likely you’ll be to meet new people than if you’resomeone who never leaves their room; - bring a doorstop. Keep your door open when you're in and that sends positive messages to your neighbours that you’re friendly. So with a bit of clever planning and motivation, Freshers’ Week can give you a great start to your university life and soon you’ll be passing on your wisdom to next year’s new recruits. Vocabulary and definitions: overwhelming putting you under a lot of pressure, very difficult to cope with settle into become familiar with and start feeling comfortable and happy about nerve-wracking causing great anxiety or distress in the same boat in the same difficult or worrying situation on the right foot successfully take it all in understand and get used to the new environment
92 blend in look or seem the same as people around you, fit in with others handy ready to give out give you a head start in making friends help you make new friends more easily and quickly passing on your wisdom explain and teach the rules of university life The Apprentice: you are fired! One of Britain’s most popular reality TV programmes has returned to our screens for a fifth series. The Apprentice sees 16 ambitious individuals competing for a job with electronics tycoon Sir Alan Sugar. With endless talk of credit-crunches, redundancies and cut-backs, it may come as no surprise that thousands of plucky hopefuls applied for the show. The chosen 16 will compete in a series of business tasks and do their best to escape elimination. Not one of them wants to hear the fateful words: you’re fired. It should also be noted that this year’s budding apprentices are not going to be allowed to forget the grim economic climate quite so easily. At the launch of this year’s TV show, Sir Alan announced that some episodes have been "specifically made towards recognition of what difficult times we are in". The tasks will as usual be gruelling tests of business acumen, team-working and leadership skill. They will also make for some hilarious viewing. British viewers will be shaking their heads in disbelief at the crazy decisions of the wannabe apprentices. But perhaps the most entertaining feature of the show will be watching the hopefuls squirm and squabble in the boardroom. It is here they will have to explain just why they have failed each task so badly. What drives people to take part in the show is difficult to say. Some are clearly motivated by the promise of a six-figure salary and some claim they want the experience of working with a successful businessman such as Sir Alan. One thing is for sure, the contestants will all gain some level of celebrity. The show is a regular ratings winner. And to date, there has been one big winner and that is the show’s creator, Mark Burnett. Originating in the US, The Apprentice’s winning format has been copied all over the world and with the hype surrounding
93 this latest series, it looks as though the show will have success for many years to come. Vocabulary and definitions: tycoon someone who has succeeded in business or industry and has become very wealthy and powerful plucky brave (informal) to escape elimination here, to stay in the show, not to get rejected fateful that have serious consequences (here, hearing these words means for a contestant that he or she is no longer in the show) budding beginning to develop or show signs of future success gruelling extremely tiring and difficult, demanding great effort and determination business acumen a person's knowledge and ability to make profitable business decisions wannabe somebody who tries to be like somebody else (informal) squirm and squabble move and argue nervously a six-figure salary money that you get for the work you've done that is at least 100,000 is a regular ratings winner is seen by many people every time it's shown; is always very popular hype a lot of publicity intended to excite public interest Switzerland Limits Immigration Switzerland is to restrict immigration from European Union member states. It will introduce new quotas and limit long-term work permits available to EU citizens. Although Switzerland is not a member of the European Union, some EU officials have already criticised the move.
94 Switzerland's high salaries, low unemployment, and stable currency are a magnet to Eurozone countries. Since the Swiss agreed to free movement of people, immigration from EU members has risen sharply, especially from Spain and Portugal, where unemployment is at crisis levels. In Switzerland, there is tension. The right wing People's Party claims Swiss jobseekers are losing out; the Green Party says immigration is putting too much pressure on housing and public transport. Now the Swiss government has called a halt: being outside the EU means Switzerland has some flexibility, and from next month permanent work permits for EU citizens will be strictly limited. Brussels has reacted angrily: EU officials have always told Switzerland it cannot cherry pick only those parts of European policy it likes best. Now, it's possible other deals the Swiss really need with Europe, on trade perhaps, could be in danger. Meanwhile, scepticalmembers of the European Union, like Britain, where many would like a less rigid relationship with the EU, will be watching Switzerland's move with interest. Vocabulary and definitions: stable steady, not likely to change magnet great attraction Eurozone countries sixteen nations which use the Euro as their currency immigration the permanent movement of non-native people into a country at crisis levels at a point where big problems could happen called a halt put a stop to it work permits written certificates allowing someone to work in a country cherry pick here: choose only the things that it likes sceptical(US: skeptical) lacking trust or confidence in something rigid fixed, not flexible (за матеріалами інтернет-ресурсу www.bbclearningenglish.com )
95 ЛІТЕРАТУРА 1. Борисенко И. И. Английский язык в международных документах и дипломатической корреспонденции : [учебное пособие] / Борисенко И. И., Евтушенко Л. И. – К. : Логос, – 1999. – 416 с. 2. Карабан В. І. Переклад англійської наукової і технічної літератури. Граматичні труднощі, лексичні, термінологічні, та жанрово-стилістичні проблеми / В. І. Карабан. – Вінниця : Нова книга, 2004. – 567 с. 3. Карабан В. І. Переклад з української мови на англійську мову : [навчальний посібник-довідник для студентів вищих закладів освіти] / Карабан В. І., Мейс Дж. – Вінниця : Нова книга, 2003, – 608 с. 4. Карпчук Н. П., Петровська Н. М. Граматичні аспекти перекладу : методичні рекомендації з теорії і практики перекладу для студентів ІІІ курсу ф-ту міжнародних відносин / Н. П. Карпчук, Н. М. Петровська, О. І. Сахащик, Л. Й. Семенюк. – Луцьк, 2007. – 107 с. 5. Карпчук Н. П., Петровська Н. М. Лексичні аспекти перекладу : методичні рекомендації з теорії і практики перекладу для студентів ІV курсу ф-ту міжнародних відносин / Н. П. Карпчук, Н. М. Петровська, О. І. Сахащик, Л. Й. Семенюк. – Луцьк : РВВ ―Вежа‖, 2006. – 116 с. 6. Комиссаров В. Н. Общая теория перевода : [учебное пособие] / Комиссаров В. Н. – М. : ЧеРо, 2000. – 136 с. 7. Корунець І. В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад) : [підручник] / І. В. Корунець– Вінниця : Нова книга, 2001. – 448 с. 8. Слепович В. С. Курс перевода (английский ↔ русский язык) / В. С. Слепович. – Мн. : ТетраСистемс, 2004. – 320 с. 9. Мирам Г. Є. Основы перевода : [курс лекций по теории и практике перевода для институтов и факультетов международных отношений] / Мирам Г. Є., Дайнеко В. В., Тарануха Л. А и др. – Киев : Эльга, Ника-центр, 2002. – 248 с. 10. Нестеренко Н. М. A Course in Interpreting and Translation : [посібник для студентів і викладачів вищих навчальних закладів] / Н. М. Нестеренко.– Вінниця : Нова книга, 2004. – 240 с.
96 Навчально-методичне видання Печко Ніна Миколаївна Теорія і практика перекладу Методичні рекомендації Друкується в авторській редакції